Document Library

Cultural Competence & Inclusion

These documents are about creating inclusive environments and recognizing multiple examples of diversity such as race, gender, or learning ability.

 

Children in Poverty Gender Issues and Sensitivity
Cultural Competence Learning Differences
English Language Learners Racial Issues and Sensitivity
Faith-Based Programming Sexual Identity

 

Children in Poverty

 

The Activity Gap. (January 2015). Alia Wong discusses disparity in access to afterschool programs.  The publication points out markedly lower rates of afterschool accessibility for low income families.  The author also presents meaningful data on the positive impact of OST involvement. The Atlantic.

 

Adolescent Well-Being after Experiencing Family Homelessness. (June 2016) This is the second in a series of research briefs that draws on the Family Options Study to inform HHS and HHS grantees as they carry out their special responsibilities for preventing and ending the homelessness of families, children, and youth. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

After-School Activities Make Educational Inequalities Even Worse. (2013). It's not just what happens inside the classroom that determines a child's status as an adult. Accomplishments outside the classroom can be just as influential. But activities outside of school are not free, so they largely benefit already advantaged kids.

Afterschool for All? Exploring Access and Equity in Afterschool Programs.  (2003).  This article examines afterschool program availability in cities and rural areas throughout the country.  Afterschool programs committed to equity are featured and authors discuss meaningful application of research. The Forum for Youth Investment.

America After 3PM: From Big Cites to Small Towns(2010) The nation has a long way to go to meet the needs of kids and families from urban, suburban and rural communities when schools are not in session. The demand for afterschool and summer programs is very high in all community types, especially among low-income students who need them most. From Afterschool Alliance and JC Penny Afterschool.

America After 3PM Special Report: Afterschool in Communities of Concentrated Poverty. (August 2016) Findings from America After 3PM document the role that afterschool programs play in supporting families living in high-poverty areas by answering questions about afterschool program participation, demand, roadblocks, and experiences. Afterschool Alliance.

 

Basic Facts about Low-Income Children. (February 2016) This fact sheet describes the demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics of children and their parents. It highlights the important factors that appear to distinguish low-income and poor children from their less disadvantaged counterparts. National Center for Children in Poverty.

 

A Better Way: Our Vision for a Confident America. (June 2016) A new policy paper from House Speaker Paul Ryan on poverty representing the recommendations on issues in welfare, workforce and education. House Republican Task Force on Poverty, Opportunity and Upward Mobility.

Bolstering Out-of-School Time for City Kids. (2010). A New Systems Approach. Many families take for granted that the hours their children spend outside school will be filled with enrichment and learning: photography or homework help, soccer or robotics, dance or debate. But for the nation's poor, including millions of urban children and teens, such opportunities are often out of reach. From the Wallace foundation.

Breaking the Glass Ceiling of Achievement for Low-Income Students and Students of Color. (2013). While gaps between student groups have narrowed over time at the below basic level of performance, gaps at the advanced level have widened. And among higher income groups, gap-widening between white students and students of color is more pronounced.

Can After-School Programs Help Level the Playing Field for Disadvantaged Youth?  (2009).  This report details afterschool participation across both socioeconomic and racial/ethnic groups.  Author s also discuss the connections between afterschool program participation and academic outcomes.   A Research Initiative for Educational Equity.

Child Care and the Development of Behavior Problems Among Economically Disadvantaged Children in Middle Childhood.(2010). Research examining the longer term influences of child care on children's development has expanded in recent years, but few studies have considered low-income children's experiences in community care arrangements. Using data from the Three-City Study, this research examines the influences of child care quality, extent and type on low-income children's development of behavior problems during middle childhood (7-11years old). Elizabeth Votruba-Drzal, Rebekah Levine Coley, Carolina Maldonado-Carreño, Christine P. Li-Grining, P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale.

Children in Poverty: Indicators on Children and Youth. (December 2016) In 2010, more than 1 in 5 children (22 percent) lived in families with incomes below the poverty line, the highest level since 1993; by 2015, this had fallen to 20 percent. Poverty levels among Black and Hispanic children, children living in single-mother families, and children under five are higher. Child Trends.

Children in Poverty: Trends, Consequences, and Policy Options. (2009). This new Child Trends research brief uses 2007 Census data to present a statistical portrait of children in poverty in the U.S. It also highlights research on the consequences of poverty for children and suggests program and policy approaches that hold promise for decreasing poverty among low-income children and their families.

Closing the 'Word Gap' Between Rich and Poor. (2013). By the age of 3, children born into low-income families heard roughly 30 million fewer words than their more affluent peers. Research has revealed that the 'word gap' factors into a compounding achievement gap between the poor and the better-off in school and life.

Effective and Promising Summer Learning Programs and Approaches for Economically-Disadvantaged Children and Youth.(2009). This white paper from The Wallace Foundation examines available research on program outcomes for children, and identifies the characteristics of effective summer learning programs.

The Effects of Exposure to Better Neighborhoods on Children: New Evidence from the Moving to Opportunity Experiment. (May 2015) The Moving to Opportunity (MTO) experiment offered randomly selected families living in high-poverty housing projects housing vouchers to move to lower-poverty neighborhoods. We present new evidence on the impacts of MTO on children's long-term outcomes using administrative data from tax returns. National Bureau of Economic Research.

 

Every Hour Counts Ten-Year Convening Report. (June 2016) This report provides an overview of major developments in the expanded-learning field in the last ten years, and sets forth a vision for the future. It describes the pressing social issues that impact student learning, including poverty and inequity, and examine the ways in which expanded learning can help remove some of the associated barriers. Every Hour Counts.

Extra Time Can Help in Fight for Equity, Study Says. (2013). Research about efforts to expand learning time is clear on one point: Low-income, low-achieving student of color benefit the most from spending more time in high-quality, regulated activities beyond traditional school hours. But there is some disagreement about what kinds of activities are best. This article provides additional information on this issue.

Family Interventions for Youth Experiencing or at Risk of Homelessness. (July 2016) This report summarizes existing evidence on family intervention strategies for youth experiencing or at risk of homelessness gathered through a literature review and conversations with a small set of key informants. Urban Institute.

 

First Grade Student Library Card Ownership Linked to Library Visitation. (May 2015) The study shows that first-grade children who had a library card were more than twice as likely to visit the library compared to children who did not have a library card, even after controlling for the effects of socioeconomic status. Institute of Museum and Library Services.

 

Food Hardship in America: Households with Children Especially Hard Hit. (September 2016) This report offers additional summary and recommendations regarding a 2015 Gallup survey reporting national, state, and metropolitan statistical area (MSA) rates of food hardship - this time noting distinctions for households with and without children. Food Research & Action Center.

 

Helping Low-Income Urban Youth Make the Transition to Early Adulthood: A Retrospective Study of the YMCA Youth Institute. (2016) The pilot qualitative study explores the perspectives of young adults on the effect of their participation in the Youth Institute and suggests implications for other high school OST programs. Afterschool Matters.

 

Hunger Doesn't Take a Vacation: Summer Nutrition Status Report 2009. (2009). This annual report from the Food Research and Action Center (FRAC) looks at national trends around participation in the Summer Nutrition Programs by comparing the number of children receiving summer meals to the number of children receiving school lunch during the regular school year.

 

Income inequality, social mobility, and the decision to drop out of high school. (March 2015) This analysis offers an explanation for how income inequality might lead to a perpetuation of economic disadvantage and has implications for the types of interventions and programs that would effectively promote upward mobility among low-SES youth. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity.

 

Inequity Outside the Classroom: Growing Class Differences in Participation in Extracurricular Activities. (2015). OST access issues and economic disadvantage are discussed.  Extracurricular and OST program involvement has been associated with academic and professional advancement. Annenberg Institute for School Reform.

KIDS COUNT Data Book (2010) This year's KIDS COUNT Data Book found that the 2008 child poverty rate topped 18 percent, which means the number of children living in poverty grew by a million between 2000 and 2008. Moreover, when more up-to-date Census data is released later this year, the child poverty rate is expected to climb past 20 percent. The report also found that child well-being worsened in three areas - the percentage of low-birth-weight babies born, the percentage of children living in single-parent families, and the child poverty rate - and that it improved in five areas, namely infant mortality, child deaths, teen deaths, teen births, and the percentage of teens not in school and not high school graduates.

Left Out: The Status of Children in Philadelphia. (October 2016) The PCCY Child Wellness Index presents a snapshot of how children have fared since the onset of the Great Recession in 2008 to 2014. The Index looks at four domains that research shows are key determinants of lifetime outcomes - Economic Well-Being, Health, Early Childhood Education, and K-12 Education. Public Citizens for Children+Youth.

Lessons Learned in the Creation of a Safety Net for Youth Aging out of Foster Care. (2014). This report demonstrates real collective impact on a community issue through the lens of the work on foster care reform. It is dedicated to the community leaders who came together with tenacity and vision to create a safety net for youth who age out of the foster care system.

Making the Grade: Assessing the Evidence for Integrated Student Supports.  (2014).  Integrated student supports (ISS) strives to ensure educational equity by engaging the student, family and community. Authors recommend considering offering afterschool and summer programming to focus on students’ mental and physical health and extending learning time. Child Trends.

The Life Skills Assessment Scale: Measuring Life Skills of Disadvantaged Children in the Developing World. (2014). This article published in the journal of Social Behavior and Personality discusses how adversity, including malnutrition, has had irrefutable effects on child development and mental health. Using observational data from 1,136 disadvantaged children, the research team constructed a simple 5-item impact assessment scale to measure program impact.

The New State Achievement Gap: How Federal Waivers Could Make it Worse - or Better. (2013). This article suggests that the federal government should learn from the new state achievement gap, and put the nation on a more equitable course. In order to accomplish this, two steps are paramount: first, the government should rigorously uncover what works; and second, it must hold states accountable.

Organizational and Program Changes in youthCONNECT: What Happened and Why. (May 2016) This document summarizes Child Trends' evaluation of youthCONNECT, a collaboration of government, philanthropy, nonprofits, and evaluators aiming to improve opportunities for low-income youth (14-24) in the National Capital Region. Child Trends.

 

The Path Forward: Improving Opportunities for African American Students. (2015) This report and interactive site offers a portrait of the performance of African American students today. U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation.

People's Emergency Center Releases Report on Youth Homelessness in Philadelphia. (2013). The People's Emergency Center (PEC), a West Philadelphia based nonprofit, produced a report on the impact of homelessness on youth by combining its own research with data from a national survey. This report provides 34 ideas and suggestions for solving youth homelessness.

Poverty and Potential: Out-of-School Factors and School Success. (2009). This policy brief from Arizona State University, funded by the Great Lakes Center, details the poverty-induced physical, sociological, and psychological effects on students that limit what schools alone can accomplish.

Ready for Fall?  Near-Term Effects of Voluntary Summer Learning Programs on Low-Income Students' Learning Opportunities and Outcomes.  (2014). This report details findings from a multi-city, longitudinal study, titled the National Summer Learning Project. The study found that low-income students who attended a district sponsored summer program between third and fourth grade, displayed average gains in math equaling approximately 20% of a student’s year-long growth in the subject. Rand Corporation. 

Reducing the Effects of Child Poverty. (2013). In today's global economic state, many families and children face reduced circumstances when higher costs for basic goods are coupled with fewer jobs and reduced wages. This article provides some astounding statistics on the level of child poverty as well as information on the implications of the "new poverty" for schools and communities.

School Breakfast Scorecard: 2014-2015 School Year. (February 2016) The annual report measures states on the rate of participation of low-income children in the federally-funded School Breakfast Program. Also see companion piece: School Breakfast: Making it Work in Large School Districts. Food Research & Action Center (FRAC).

 

A Shared Sentence: The Devastating Toll of Parental Incarceration on Kids, Families and Communities. (April 2016) A Shared Sentence offers commonsense proposals to address the increased poverty and stress that children of incarcerated parents experience. The Annie E. Casey Foundation.

Starting School at a Disadvantage: The School Readiness of Poor Children. (2012). Research suggests that 48% of children from low income families are prepared for kindergarten. Comparatively, 75% of middle and high income students are prepared for school at this age. This publication provides data on this issue and delves into the factors behind the disadvantages. Center for Children and Families at Brookings.

Study: Homeless, Mobile Students Face Academic Risk Beyond Poverty. (2013). Homeless and highly transient children are arguably the most at-risk of any students, well beyond the academic difficulties created by poverty alone. But according to a recent study, many can persist and recover academically once their living arrangements stabilize.

Summer Search Philadelphia 2013 Back to School Impact Report. (2013). Summer Searchers in Philadelphia face 30% more risk factors than their Summer Search peers across the country. These risk factors include: living with one or more incarcerated parent or guardian; living in households without one or more natural parent; residing in a high-need neighborhood; living in a single parent household; and having experienced trauma or abuse.

Tackling Persistent Poverty in Distressed Urban Neighborhoods. (2014). This paper summarizes lessons learned and evolving practice in the field of place-based interventions. It offers a set of guiding principles for child-focused, place-conscious initiatives focused on persistent, inter-generational poverty.

Understanding the Geography of Growth in Rural Child Poverty. (July 2015) This article discusses the factors and distinctions related to child poverty rates and experiences in rural versus non-rural regions of the US. US Department of Agriculture.

 

Unfinished Business: More than 20 Million Children in U.S. Still Lack Sufficient Access to Essential Health Care. (November 2016) The report found that more than 20 million children are either uninsured, insured but do not receive regular primary care, or are publicly insured but do not receive essential and timely specialty care, noting that barriers to better healthcare access include high costs, lack of transportation, parents' limited English proficiency and more. Children's Health Fund.

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Cultural Competence

America’s Hispanic Children: Gaining Ground Looking Forward.  (September 2014). According to this report, one in every four children in the U.S. is Hispanic; by 2050 it will be one in three. Child Trends presents demographic data on Hispanic youth in America today. Child Trends.

The Benefits, Challenges, and Successful Strategies of OST Programs in Rural Areas. (2011). Out-of-school time (OST) programming can be a crucial asset to families in rural areas where resources to support children's learning and development are often insufficient to meet the community's needs. OST programs that offer youth in rural communities a safe and supportive adult-supervised environment-along with various growth-enhancing opportunities-can promote academic, personal, social, and recreational development.

Boosting College Success Among Men of Color: Promising Approaches and Next Steps. December 2016. MDRC.

Choosing Philadelphia: Attracting and Retaining Immigrant Newcomers. (2014). This report presents findings from a first-of-its kind survey of immigrant residents of the Philadelphia region. While not statistically representative, the study reached an exceptionally broad range of respondents comprising 364 individuals from 74 countries.

Cultural Intelligence. (2004). This article defines and describes cultural intelligence, and why it is so important in organizations today. By differentiating the nuanced differences between cultural intelligence and emotional intelligence, the author highlights the key characteristics that make cultural intelligence so important.

Effective Literacy and English Language Instruction for English Learners in the Elementary Grades - Format Revised. (December 2007) This guide is for a broad spectrum of school practitioners challenged with providing effective literacy instruction for English language learners in the elementary grades, including those who develop practice and policy options for their schools. The Institute of Education Sciences (IES).

Enhancing Cultural Competence in Out-of-School Time Programs.(2007).This Child Trends brief discusses the elements of cultural competence and its significance for out-of-school time programs. It also provides suggestions for developing cultural competence and incorporating culturally competent activities into programs in order to benefit youth from a wide range of backgrounds.

The Growing Importance of Afterschool in Rural Communities. (March 2016) This America After 3PM report focuses on the hours after school for children and families living in rural communities, and what more can be done to make certain that all children, regardless of geographic location, are given the array of supports they need to achieve their full potential. Afterschool Alliance.

Highlighting the Positive Development of Minority Children. (2014). This brief summarizes facts and findings from research that underscore the critical importance of focusing on and also learning more about the positive development, adaptation and adjustment of young minority children, instead of concentrating mostly on adversity, deficit andmaladjustment.

Inner City Truth: An Urban Youth Lifestyle Study II. (2009). This report is based on a 100+ question survey conducted with 1,500 African American and Hispanic inner-city youth ages 15 to 20 in six cities.  It provides an insider's view of new and under-the-radar trends in inner-city, hip-hop culture, a leading indicator for mainstream and global trends.

The Latino Education Crisis - The Consequences of Failed Social Policies. (2009). This forum featured Patricia Gándara, Professor of Education at UCLA, presenting an overview of her new book entitled The Latino Education Crisis: The Consequences of Failed Social Policies. Gándara identifies a broad web of issues that contribute to low rates of college enrollment and success, and offers policy recommendations.

Millennial Searchers. (2013). In this New York Times article, the authors debunk the myths that millennials are a lost, lazy, narcissistic, and self-absorbed generation, by presenting research that shows that this generation is the most educated generation in American history and measures success using different metrics.

Opportunity Youth Playbook: A Guide to Reconnecting Boys and Young Men of Color to Education and Employment. December 2016. Forum for Youth Investment.

Out-of-School Time Activity Participation Among U.S. Immigrant Youth.  (May 2015).  Researchers collected OST data from over 36,000 youth aged 12-17 years of age.  Data suggests that Hispanic youth were less likely to participate in OST activities.  These research findings indicate that OST recruitment may need to be tailored for communities served.  Journal of School Health. 

The Path Forward: Improving Opportunities for African American Students. (2015) This report and interactive site offers a portrait of the performance of African American students today. U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation.

 

Philadelphia's Nonprofit Human Service Organizations: How African American-Led Organizations Differ from White-Led Organizations. (April 2016) This study was commissioned by the Philadelphia African American Leadership Forum (PAALF) with funding from the United Way of Greater Philadelphia and Southern New Jersey to better understand the challenges and value of African American-led nonprofits in Philadelphia. Branch Associates.

 

Pursuing the Promise: Addressing Equity, Access and Diversity in After School and Youth Programs (Excerpt). (2003). This excerpt explores equity and access in afterschool programming. The report presents recommendations on furthering dialogue related to diversity in the afterschool field. California Tomorrow.

 

Racial Disparities in Educational Opportunities in Pennsylvania: A First Look at New Civil Rights Data. (November 2016) This report analyzes the latest Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC) indicators to compare how the educational opportunities and experiences of Pennsylvania's black and Hispanic students differ from those of white students. Research for Action.

Reflections on Access and Equity Implications for After School Program Evaluations. (2000). Laurie Olsen discusses California Tomorrow's principles defining access and equity in afterschool programs. Continual evaluation strives to expand access and encourages dialogue in the field. HFRP.

Teacher Colleges Emphasizing 'Cultural Competence'. (2011). Schools of education have generally always included training targeted at specific types of students, whether those living in the inner city or in rural areas. UIC's College of Education now offers only an urban education major for undergraduates. Students in the major can choose to prepare for an elementary education certification or study "education in a democratic society," which includes policy studies and prepares students to become educators in non-traditional settings like non-profits. Education Week.

The relationships between after-school programs, academic outcomes, and behavioral developmental outcomes of Latino children from immigrant families: Findings from the 2005 National Household Education Surveys Program.  (March 2015).  Researchers examined possible connections between afterschool program participation among Latino children and academic and behavioral indicators.  No significant association between participation and youth outcomes was found.  The study findings may reveal the need for more culturally competent afterschool program offerings.  Children and Youth Services Review.

Tools for Schools: "A World of Possibilities" (2010) Along with other 21st century skills, many schools and educators are realizing that it is no longer optional to develop global knowledge and skills. American students compete more than ever on an international playing field when they leave schools, and businesses are looking for graduates who are ready to work as both collaborators and competitors in a global arena. This newsletter from the National Staff Development council looks at strategies for incorporating global competence into academics and programming.

To Talk Baltimore with Kids: Focus on the Positive.  (April 2015). This New York Times article discusses how to talk to youth about the events that are occurring in Baltimore, Maryland. The author specifically focuses on talking to your kids about the positive things that the children of Baltimore are doing in the media. New York Times.

Two Generational Strategies to Improve Immigrant Family and Child Outcomes. (December 2015) This paper is a reflection of a remarkable two-day conversation among leading voices from the worlds of policy, advocacy, research, service delivery, and philanthropy for low-income families and immigrant communities. CLASP.

 

Uprooted: The Growing Crisis for Refugee and Migrant Children. (September 2016) The report sheds light on the truly global nature of childhood migration and displacement, highlighting the major challenges faced by child migrants and refugees in every region. UNICEF.

 

Using Existing Large-Scale Data to Study Early Care and Education Among Hispanics: How Hispanic Parents and Children Experience ECE Settings. (March 2016) As part of a larger effort to build research capacity related to early care and education (ECE) issues for low-income Hispanic families, this brief describes data elements specific to the experiences children and families have with ECE providers and programs, including the quality of ECE settings, parental satisfaction, and parents' experiences coordinating ECE arrangements with employment demands. National Research Center on Hispanic Children & Families. 

 

Why Good Teachers Embrace Culture. (2013). All good teachers build a bridge between what students know and what they need to learn. Yet teaching that embraces students' cultural backgrounds have largely been left out of current debates on what makes teachers effective. Culturally responsive teaching often requires confronting some of the most painful divides in American life.

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English Language Learners

Dual Language Learners and Social-Emotional Development. (2014). Recent scholarship has emphasized that young bilingual children typically demonstrate advantages in executive function skills compared to their monolingual peers, and have different developmental trajectories than monolingual children in language and literacy development.

Effective Literacy and English Language Instruction for English Learners in the Elementary Grades - Format Revised. (December 2007) This guide is for a broad spectrum of school practitioners challenged with providing effective literacy instruction for English language learners in the elementary grades, including those who develop practice and policy options for their schools. The Institute of Education Sciences (IES).

English Learners and Out-Of-School-Time Programs. (2011). This brief highlights evidence-based ways through which OST programs might be particularly well suited to support English Learning (EL) students. The piece details educational settings which help EL students overcome the dual learning challenges they often face.

A Guide for Engaging ELL Families. (August 2011). This guide offers practical tips on engaging families of English Language Learners. Recommendations include considering culturally significant holidays when planning events, inviting parents to volunteer at your program, and building partnerships with local community organizations. Colorin Colorado.

Literacy in Afterschool Programs: Focus on English Language Learners. (2006). This literature review examines best practices and focuses on specific beneficial interventions. Researchers urge providers to engage the student, family and community in all efforts. Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.

Moving English Language Learners to College- and Career-Readiness.(2009).This American Youth Policy Forum issue brief explores effective educational models for serving English Language Learners in ways that build upon these students' assets and prepare them for college and careers. The brief derives from an AYPF fact-finding trip to Texas's Rio Grande Valley region.

New federal guidelines highlight civil rights of English language learners.  (January 2015). According to new reports, approximately 9% of all U.S. public school students are English-language learners. The Obama administration has released guidelines on protecting the civil rights of these students. The Washington Post.

A Race against the Clock: The Value of Expanded Learning Time for English Language Learners. (2009). This report examines the role that time plays in their education and learning, and how the expansion of learning time can be a key strategy in improving educational outcomes for ELLs.

Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups 2016. (August 2016) This report examines the educational progress and challenges students face in the United States by race/ethnicity. US Department of Education.

Supporting English Language Learners: In-School, Afterschool and Summer. (n.d.). Researchers have found a connection between afterschool and summer program participation and improved linguistic acquisition. These programs can offer homework help and often connect parents to resources. A Compendium on Expanded Learning.

Uprooted: The Growing Crisis for Refugee and Migrant Children. (September 2016) The report sheds light on the truly global nature of childhood migration and displacement, highlighting the major challenges faced by child migrants and refugees in every region. UNICEF.

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Faith-Based Programming

The Demographics of Spirituality and Religiosity Among Youth: International and U.S. Patterns.  (2010) The idea that humans have a basic need to connect to a transcendent universe or to have transcendent experiences suggests that spiritual beliefs and practices would be equally distributed in the world population. Surveys, however, consistently find wide variation among population groups in the prevalence of particular spiritual beliefs and practices.

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Gender Issues and Sensitivity

To Attract More Girls to STEM, Bring More Storytelling to Science. (2013). Women and girls are historically underrepresented in STEM fields. As STEM becomes increasingly important in our globalized society, it is even more imperative that educators find ways to encourage the participation of girls in these fields, and storytelling seems to provide that opportunity.

 

Best Practices for Serving Transgender and Gender Non-Conforming Students in Schools. (November 2012). This detailed guide presents information on pronoun choice, restroom and locker room accessibility questions, and bullying prevention. Authors also list various resources for transgender youth.   MA Transgender Political Coalition Policy Committee.

Cascading Influences: Long-Term Impacts of Informal STEM Experiences for Girls. (2013). Since the 1980s, funders largely began supporting informal science education programs for girls with the hope of heightening their interest in STEM fields and disciplines. This retrospective study explores the possible impacts of informal STEM experiences for girls through the use of a sociocultural lens and a web-based questionnaire.

Effective STEM Programs for Adolescent Girls. (2013). This article focuses on three approaches to STEM in OST that would be instructive for any organization seeking to develop STEM opportunities for teen girls. Although the referenced programs focused on reaching populations most underrepresented in STEM, the strategies they implemented could be applied to any population of adolescent girls.

Experts Call for Early Focus on Black Boys' Nonacademic Skills. (2011). Schools should increase their attention to social and emotional development in the early grades as one way to prevent black boys from falling behind their peers, researchers said at a recent symposiumon closing the achievement gap between African-American males and other student groups.

Experts Call for Expanding Boys' Career Options. Traditionally female-dominated careers still draw few men. (2011). In the nearly four decades since the law known as Title IX barred sex discrimination in education programs receiving federal aid, educators and policymakers have encouraged more girls to study and enter traditionally "male" careers, from science and technology to architecture and law. Education Week.

Exploring Self Esteem in a Girls Sports Program. (2012). This article explores the challenges facing those who research self-esteem and the role afterschool programs can play in facilitating its develop­ment, particularly among adolescent girls. The author reviews research about self-esteem and adolescent girls, presenting findings from a study exploring girls' experiences in a sports-based youth development pro­gram, and attempts to engage practitioners and researchers in new conversations about self-esteem and how we assess it.

Gender Differences in What Works for Boys and Girls. (2012). Girls and boys face different developmental challenges throughout childhood and adolescence. Although a number of evidence-based programs have been found to be effective at reducing risk factors for children and adolescents, many programs have differential impacts for girls and boys. Understanding what works for girls and what works for boys is critical to improving youth outcomes. Child Trends' latest research briefs, What Works for Female Children and Adolescents: Lessons from Experimental Evaluations of Programs and Interventions, and its companion brief focused on boys,What Works for Male Children and Adolescents: Lessons from Experimental Evaluations of Programs and Interventions, examine programs and strategies that work, as well as those that don't, for each gender.

And Girl Justice for All. (2014). Low-income and minority girls are almost twice as likely as their white counterparts to drop out of high school. After-school programs can help change this. This article in the spring issue of the Afterschool Matters Journal describes how a little program intentionality can go a long way.

Girls Talk, Provide Guidance and Boost Self-Confidence.  (December 2014).  Authors feature a girls mentoring program in Maryland.  The program matches high school females with young women attending college. A variety of topics are discussed including confidence, peer pressure and post-secondary planning. Voice of America.

Girls and Physics: It's Essential to Go Beyond the Textbook. (2012). The author, a physics teacher at an all-girl high school in Singapore, explores the male domination of physics and other sciences. She suggests ways to go beyond the textbook to cater to girls'learning needs. ASCD Express.

Harsh Realities: The Experiences of Transgender Youth in Our Nation’s Schools.  (2009).  The Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network collected data from transgender students on experiences during school-time.  The publication points out that transgender students, “…are faced with unique challenges in school, such as accessing gender-segregated facilities and being addressed by their preferred names and pronouns.”  Afterschool providers can use the study findings to create safe and inclusive spaces for all students served.  GLSEN.

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth in the Juvenile Justice System. (September 2015) This juvenile detention practice guide documents the vulnerability of LGBT youth in communities and in justice systems. Annie E. Casey Foundation.

 

LMSD Holds First Girls Leadership Conference. (2014). Written by Anna Skillings, this article describes the inaugural Girls Leadership Conference held in the Lower Merion school district. With workshops led by faculty in Bryn Mawr College, Haverford College, and the University of Pennsylvania the conference discussed topics such as girl empowerment, building confidence, and understanding leadership.

More STEM Girls Please! (2013). Our nation will have more than 8.6 million STEM-related jobs available in 2018, and three million of those jobs may be unfilled by citizens. This article suggests that women can fill this gap and should be recruited, educated, and employed in these positions.

The State of Girls 2017: Emerging Truths and Troubling Trends. 2017. Girl Scouts Research Institute.

STEM Out-of-school Time Programs for Girls. (2011). Increasing knowledge of and engagement with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has recently been brought to the forefront of education reform in the United States in an effort to prepare students for the challenges of the twenty-first century global economy.1 Out-of-school time (OST) programs that focus on girls' involvement in STEM can play an essential role in improving female representation in these traditionally male-dominated fields. Harvard Family Research Project.

Supporting and Caring for our Gender-Expansive Youth. (2012). This report presents information on a group of surveyed young people who identify as either transgender or a gender outside of the limits of male/female. Gender related terms and survey finding are presented.  The HRS also includes two sections specific to parents and educators. HRC.

 

Survival Tips for Trans Youth. (2012). Intended as a resource for young people, this tip sheet answers questions commonly asked by trans youth. Lambda Legal presents a list of resources and offers insight into relevant laws. Lambda Legal.

 

Transforming the Educational Experience of Young Men of Color. (2013). Research shows that young men of color are struggling to succeed in the current education system. School counselors can play a critical role in changing that reality. This four volume series and the companion workbook explore the ways in which school counselors can better support young men of color and their educational success.

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Learning Differences

Connecting with Students Requires 100 Repetitions. (2012). This article explores how to handle teaching students who challenge us, especially those dealing with substance abuse. Many students cannot internalize a new behavior just because they've been told to or by practicing it once or twice. They need repetitions. But-and this is crucial-providing those 100 useful repetitions does not mean rigidly providing students with exactly the same experience 100 times in an emotionally safe environment. Educational Leadership Magazine from ASCD.

Does your Organization Welcome Participants with Disabilities? A New Assessment Tool. (2009). This assessment tool examines the level of inclusiveness in OST programming, with a goal of ensuring that participants with disabilities have equal access to programming.  This tool can be used to inform programs of their internal effectiveness.

Including Everyone, Helping Special Need students Participate in Afterschool. (2007)This document provide a link to resources pertaining to inclusive afterschool programming for students with special needs.  It highlights the reasons for inclusion and how to make the transition to a more inclusive program.

Psychosocial Effects of Reverse-integrated Basketball Activity for Young People with Physical Disability in Israel. (2012).
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of participation in different sport modalities on quality of life and perceived social competence in young people with physical disability.

Reaching the Tipping Point: Insights on Advancing Competency Education in New England. (October 2016) This paper explores the core concepts of competency education, detailing the limitations of the traditional system, and how competency education is designed explicitly for equity and student success. CompetencyWorks.

Social Skills Are Critical for Those With Disabilities. (2011). Imagine a childhood without play dates or birthday parties, sleepovers or school dances. Doesn't sound like much of a childhood, does it? Well, for children with disabilities-developmental and otherwise-it is, more often than not, the norm. Education Week.

Supporting Youth with Special Needs in Out-of-School Time. (2012). Although the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 requires accommodations for individuals with disabilities in community settings, many out-of-school time (OST) programs struggle to successfully support youth with special needs. NIOST.

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Racial Issues and Sensitivity

Aiming Higher Together: Strategizing Better Educational Outcomes for Boys and Young Men of Color. (May 2016) This paper argues for fostering conditions in homes, schools, peer groups, and communities that enable instead of stifle BYMOC achievement. Urban Institute.

ATE Centers and Community Colleges: Increasing Underrepresented Minorities Participating in STEM Fields. (2009). ATE Centers and Projects have made it a priority to reach out of underrepresented populations by providing opportunities for exposure to new fields and academic support to succeed in postsecondary education. The programs highlighted at this forum described their programs and efforts to serve these student populations. 

Being Black is Not a Risk Factor. (2013). While this publication inventories the challenges facing African American children and families and the failure of various systems to address their needs, it also tells the story of resiliency in the face of despair. This is a handbook for families and community helpers, that gives them information they need to design services that build on the strengths of their community.

Being Black is Not a Risk Factor: Statistics and Strengths-Based Solutions in the State of Pennsylvania. (2016) This state-specific report, like the 2013 national report before it, serves as an important resource for policymakers, advocates, practitioners, parents and caregivers alike addressing the strengths and needs of Black children and families where they live. Black Child Development Institute Philadelphia.

Beyond the Classroom: Creating Pathways to College and Careers for Latino Youth. (2010). This report from National Council of La Raza provides evidence that Latino youth have a greater potential to diversify and enhance America’s workforce when they have access to broader education and career networks.

Boosting College Success Among Men of Color: Promising Approaches and Next Steps. December 2016. MDRC.

 

Building a Culture of Health by Creating Opportunities for Boys and Young Men of Color. (October 2016) This document is an executive summary of seven issue briefs that were commissioned by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Forward Promise initiative to better understand thes barriers that America's young men of color face and promising ways for our nation to overcome them. Moriah Group.

Changing the Story for Minorities in STEM Subjects. (2013). This article highlights the Meyerhoff Scholars Program, which provides tutoring and educational resources to high-achieving black and Latino students in the STEM fields. Now in its 25th year, the program is changing expectations for undeserved students.

Condition of College & Career Readiness 2014: Hispanic Students. (July 2015) This report provides a national snapshot of academic performance among Hispanic students in the high school graduating class of 2014 who took the ACT college readiness assessment. Act, Inc.

 

Connecting to Teach Social Justice and #BlackLivesMatter. (December 2014). Teachers have organized over social media to help each other in talking to their youth about racial tension using the hashtag “#FergusonSyllabus”.These educators aim to use social media to amplify the voices of their youth and teach their students how to be learners, researchers, and activists. Educator Innovator.

Educational-Entertainment as an Intervention With Black Adolescents Exposed to Community Violence. (2012). Witnessing violence is one adverse childhood experience (ACE) associated with living in impoverished Black urban communities. Youth with higher violence avoidance self-efficacy and positive coping are more likely to avoid violence. This study evaluates educational entertainment (edutainment) as an intervention with Black adolescents exposed to community violence. Dorsey Allen, V. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community.

Equity: The Soul of Collective Impact. (2015) This paper examines the collective impact model by drawing on lessons learned from efforts such as the Healthy Start program (Oakland, CA), the national Promise Neighborhoods program, and the Alliance for Boys and Men of Color. PolicyLink.

Experts Call for Early Focus on Black Boys' Nonacademic Skills. (2011). Schools should increase their attention to social and emotional development in the early grades as one way to prevent black boys from falling behind their peers, researchers said at a recent symposiumon closing the achievement gap between African-American males and other student groups. Education Week.

Experts Call for Expanding Boys' Career Options. Traditionally female-dominated careers still draw few men. (2011). In the nearly four decades since the law known as Title IX barred sex discrimination in education programs receiving federal aid, educators and policymakers have encouraged more girls to study and enter traditionally "male" careers, from science and technology to architecture and law. Education Week.

Extra Time Can Help in Fight for Equity, Study Says. (2013). Research about efforts to expand learning time is clear on one point: Low-income, low-achieving student of color benefit the most from spending more time in high-quality, regulated activities beyond traditional school hours. But there is some disagreement about what kinds of activities are best. This article provides additional information on this issue.

Guide to Mentoring Boys and Young Men of Color. (2016) The fourth edition of The Elements of Effective Practice for Mentoring™ (Elements) represents the current evidence-based standards for running a safe and effective youth mentoring program. This Guide serves as a supplement to the Elements and includes additional recommended practices focusing on boys and young men of color (BYMOC). My Brother's Keeper Alliance / MENTOR.

Highlighting the Positive Development of Minority Children. (2014). This brief summarizes facts and findings from research that underscore the critical importance of focusing on and also learning more about the positive development, adaptation and adjustment of young minority children, instead of concentrating mostly on adversity, deficit andmaladjustment.

The Importance of Minority Teachers: Student Perceptions of Minority Versus White Teachers. (October 2016) Using data from the Measure of Effective Teaching study, this paper finds that students perceive minority teachers more favorably than white teachers, underscoring the importance of minority teacher recruitment and retention. Educational Researcher.

Intentionally Successful: Improving Minority Student College Graduation Rates. (2013). Over the past three years, the number of black and Latino undergraduates enrolled in four-year colleges has increased far faster than the enrollment of white students. This report highlights individual institutions of higher education that are leading and lagging in closing the college completion gap.

The Invisible Ones: How Latino Children Are Left Out of Our Nation's Census Count. (April 2016) This report describes how nearly 400,000 young Latino children were uncounted in 2010, and recommends steps to reduce the risk it'll happen again in 2020. Child Trends.

 

It's Time to Talk: How to Start Conversations About Racial Inequities. (September 2015) This report tells how KIDS COUNT advocates in Nebraska, Wisconsin and Washington used solid data, leadership and citizen engagement to spur race-based legislation and community change. Annie E. Casey Foundation.

 

K-12 EDUCATION: Better Use of Information Could Help Agencies Identify Disparities and Address Racial Discrimination. (April 2016) Fifty years after The Coleman Report powerfully highlighted disparities in education, a recent analysis reveals that school segregation is a rising issue. The GAO study shows that students are attending racially and economically segregated schools today at a higher percentage than in 2001. Government Accountability Office (GAO).

Learning to Play with Anger. Howard Stevenson, an associate professor, clinical psychologist Director of Penn Graduate School of Education, Community, and Clinical Child Psychology Program, has focused much of his research on strategies that help young black males understand their anger and learn safer ways to cope. In 1998, in conjunction with the W.E.B. DuBois Collective Research Institute at Penn, he launched an anger management program for African-American preadolescent and adolescent males. Called the PLAAY Project (Preventing Long-term Anger and Aggression in Youth), the program blends basketball, martial arts training, psycho-educational group sessions, and parental support to bring about positive change in young people's lives.

More Than Homework, A Snack, and Basketball: After-School Programs as an Oasis of Hope for Black Parents in Four Cities. (2007). This report identifies some of the barriers African American and low-income or working-class families may have in accessing and utilizing after-school programming.

Moving Toward Healing: Trauma and Violence and Boys and Young Men of Color. (September 2016) The purpose of this brief is to highlight the great burden that trauma, violence, adversity, and the social determinants of health impose on the health of boys and men of color. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

 

Opportunity Youth Playbook: A Guide to Reconnecting Boys and Young Men of Color to Education and Employment. December 2016. Forum for Youth Investment.

 

The Path Forward: Improving Opportunities for African American Students. (2015) This report and interactive site offers a portrait of the performance of African American students today. U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation.

 

Point of Entry: The Preschool-to-Prison Pipeline. (October 2015) This report highlights the trends around preschool discipline, and offers recommendations and approaches to increase the protective factors available to ensure that young children stay in school and reap the full benefits of early learning while simultaneously supporting schools and teachers to actively resist the criminalization of African American youth. Center for American Progress.

 

Racial Disparities in Educational Opportunities in Pennsylvania: A First Look at New Civil Rights Data. (November 2016) This report analyzes the latest Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC) indicators to compare how the educational opportunities and experiences of Pennsylvania's black and Hispanic students differ from those of white students. Research for Action.

Recruiting and Retaining Older African-American and Hispanic Boys in Afterschool Programs: What We Know and What We Still Need to Learn. (2010). While there is evidence to indicate participation in out-of-school time activities increases positive outcomes, recruiting and retaining older youth in these programs is a hard task. This report explores that question and suggests making programs relevant leads to better recruitment and retention. The report also argues that relevance should occur at both the surface level - language used, the way materials are presented, location of programs - and the deep structural level - addresses cultural, social, and historical factors that influence the participants' behavior. Public/Private Ventures.

Reports Focus on Closing Achievement Gap. (2013). A pair of recent studies took a hard look at achievement gaps between black and Latino students and their higher-performing white peers in New York City and states across the nation. The report examined the trajectory of black and Latino young men on their path to college and identified key points where schools should provide the necessary additional support for these students.

The State of Education for Native Students. (2013). Despite recent progress in improving achievement among students of color, achievement results for Native students have remained nearly flat. But these trends are not inevitable. Some states, schools, and institutions of higher education are already working hard to ensure progress for Native students.

Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups 2016. (August 2016) This report examines the educational progress and challenges students face in the United States by race/ethnicity. US Department of Education.

 

Suicide in Elementary School-Aged Children and Early Adolescents. (September 2016) The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide in elementary school-aged children relative to early adolescent decedents and identify potential within-group racial differences. Pediatrics.

Transforming the Educational Experience of Young Men of Color. (2013). Research shows that young men of color are struggling to succeed in the current education system. School counselors can play a critical role in changing that reality. This four volume series and the companion workbook explore the ways in which school counselors can better support young men of color and their educational success.

Uprooted: The Growing Crisis for Refugee and Migrant Children. (September 2016) The report sheds light on the truly global nature of childhood migration and displacement, highlighting the major challenges faced by child migrants and refugees in every region. UNICEF.

What If Trayvon Martin Had Come Back Home? We Must Teach Our Children How to Cope with Racism. (2013). It's not easy to have "the Stalking Talk" but this article argues that parents should do all that they can to bring their children back home safely by teaching them how to cope with the racial and post-racial 'monsters' they might face along the way.

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Sexual Identity

 

Ensuring Access to Mentoring Programs for LGBTQ Youth. (January 2014). LGBTQ youth often face unique circumstances and may benefit from thoughtfully planned mentoring relationships. This manual offers specific recommendations for mentoring programs supporting this community. The Williams Institute.

Getting Down to Basics: Tools to Support LGBTQ Youth in Care. (2012). This comprehensive tool kit informs providers of best practices when working with LGBTQ youth. The kit provides guidance on working with families of LGBTQ young people, addresses policy and legal questions, and lists numerous resources for LGBTQ youth.

Child Welfare League of America & Lambda Legal.

 

Growing Up LGBT in America. (2012). The Human Rights Campaign (HRC) surveyed 10,000 LGBT youth aged 13-17. The report reaffirms the need for safe havens for young people and provides details on how LGBT youth often experience adolescence. HRC.

Inclusive Anti-Bullying Policies and Reduced Risk of Suicide Attempts in Lesbian and Gay Youth. 2012. Researchers in Oregon investigated the impact of anti-bullying policies, particularly those which engaged students in understanding the LGBT experience. Students living in counties with fewer anti-bullying policies were 2.25 times more likely to have attempted suicide in the past year than those who resided in counties with more of these programs. Journal of Adolescent Health.

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth in the Juvenile Justice System. (September 2015) This juvenile detention practice guide documents the vulnerability of LGBT youth in communities and in justice systems. Annie E. Casey Foundation.

New Projects Aim to Help Gay Teens Who Are Bullied. (2010). Several high-profile suicides among gay teens have brought increased attention to anti-gay bullying in its many forms. In its annual survey released last month, the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) found the number of students being harassed at school has remained largely unchanged over a decade. Lornet Turnbull, The Seattle Times.

Providing Services and Support for Youth who are Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Questioning, Intersex or Two-Spirit. (2008). Authors assert the need for both cultural and linguistic competence when working with young people in the LGBTQ community. This publication includes relevant definitions, recommendations, and resources. Georgetown University.

Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Related Behaviors Among Students in Grades 9-12 - United States and Selected Sites, 2015. (August 2016) This report documents that sexual minority students have a higher prevalence of many health-risk behaviors compared with nonsexual minority students, and suggests several public health actions intended to reduce disparities. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Suicide Risk and Prevention for LGBT Youth.  (2008).  This paper presents information on the risks of suicide for LGBT youth and recommended protective factors.  Supportive environments, educated and sensitive staff, and peer-based support programs, among other meaningful recommendations, are discussed. Suicide Prevention Resource Center.

Teaching Respect: LGBT-Inclusive Curriculum and School Climate.  (2011).  To purposefully provide a safe space for all students, GLSEN urges educators to present “positive representations of LGBT people, history, and events in the curriculum.”  Study findings support the connection between an inclusive curriculum and a safer environment for LGBT youth. GLSEN.

Why it's Time to Learn More about the Children of LGBT Parents. (2013). There are approximately two million children in the U.S. being raised by at least one LGBT parent. Regardless of how the Supreme Court ruled on same-sex marriage, it's time to better understand the outcomes for children raised by lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) parents, and the dynamics of their families.

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