Document Library

Caring Relationships & Behavior Guidance

These documents describe caring relationships between adults, children, and youth; and using these relationships to effectively guide and manage behavior.

 

Behavior Guidance and Classroom Management Mentoring
Caring Relationships
 

 

Behavior Guidance and Classroom Management

7 Things to Remember About Teaching Students Who Challenge Us. (2012).This infographic is a quick reminder of how to handle challenging students. These seven tips come from the October 2012 issue of Educational Leadership, and focus on discipline, kindness, power, disabilities, and how to focus on the student's best interest.

8 Tips for Schools Interested in Restorative Justice. (September 2014). Restorative justice encourages dialogue between the accused and the victim. This intervention has been shown to maintain a respectful environment, hold young people fully accountable and foster a strong community. Fania Davis lists 8 tips for providers interested in setting up this type of program. Edutopia.

Addressing Children's Challenging Behavior. (2011).Teachers encounter a variety of discipline issues in the classroom each day. Here are some suggestions- perhaps reminders - abouthow to facilitate children's development in these areas, while addressing their challenging behavior.

Behavior Management [Does not Equal] Classroom Management. (2011). Educators must always properly frame conversations about teaching effectiveness; conversations that should include but not be limited to the importance of strong teacher-student relationships and how to create them.

Better Than Carrots or Sticks: Restorative Practices for Positive Classroom Management (August 2015) This book offers a practical blueprint for creating a cooperative and respectful classroom climate in which students and teachers work through behavioral issues together. ASCD.

Can Perseverance Be Taught? (2013).  In this article, Angela Duckworth argues that the question "can perseverance be taught?" is motivated by two everyday intuitions, both of which have been confirmed in empirical research. Duckworth describes the role of persistence and grit in predicting one's likelihood for success.

Can Teacher Training in Classroom Management Make a Difference for Children's Experiences in Preschool? (2009). According to this report, evidence suggests that improving young children's healthy emotional and behavioral development is both an important outcome in its own right and can also be a pathway to improved academic achievement.

Child Care and the Development of Behavior Problems Among Economically Disadvantaged Children in Middle Childhood.(2010). Research examining the longer term influences of child care on children's development has expanded in recent years, but few studies have considered low-income children's experiences in community care arrangements. Using data from the Three-City Study, this research examines the influences of child care quality, extent and type on low-income children's development of behavior problems during middle childhood (7-11years old).

Connecting with Kids. (2007). Directed towards volunteers, this document highlights strategies for communicating with children that help develop relationships, critical thinking skills, and cognitive skills.

Cyberbullying: The New Online Crime. (2013). Elementary school bullying and high school harassment have been around for ages. Today, a new online crime is making itself more widespread given the prevalence of social media, technology, and the internet. This article provides additional resources on cyberbullying that include: definitions, case studies, warning signs, and prevention techniques.

Defusing Power Struggles: It's Not About Getting the Last Word. (2012). Many power struggles start over issues of consequences, fairness, embarrassment and being told what to do. The typical power struggle occurs when the teacher makes a request and a student refuses to comply. This article takes a look at more effective solutions to defusing power struggles with children and youth.

Effects of an Afterschool Program to Prevent Bullying on Violence Prevention Beliefs and Behaviors: A Pilot Study.  (2015).  In a rural school district with some of the highest rates of bullying in the state, the “Aggressors, Victims, and Bystanders: Thinking and Acting to Prevent Violence classroom-based program” (AVB) was implemented in an afterschool program setting and delivered using community-based personnel. Participants' significantly increased their overall confidence that they could prevent violence in their school and lives, significantly decreased their beliefs that support violence, and significantly decreased their behaviors supportive of violence. Research Journal of Human Sciences.

The Future of Youth Justice: A Community-Based Alternative to the Youth Prison Model. (October 2016) America's longstanding youth prison model, which emphasizes confinement and control, exacerbates youth trauma and inhibits positive growth while failing to address public safety. This report introduces an alternate model - rooted in a continuum of community-based programs - that aims to set all children on a pathway to success. National Institute of Justice, Harvard Kennedy School.

 

The Importance of Minority Teachers: Student Perceptions of Minority Versus White Teachers. (October 2016) Using data from the Measure of Effective Teaching study, this paper finds that students perceive minority teachers more favorably than white teachers, underscoring the importance of minority teacher recruitment and retention. Educational Researcher.

 

Parent Resource: Cyber Bullying Facts and Tips. 2014. This informational piece features cyber bullying statistics, laws and resources for parents. "CDC statistics indicate that between 2000 and 2005, cyber bullying among children and teens aged 10-17 increased by 50 percent.” Price Benowitz LLP.

Promoting Social Behavior of Young Children in Group Settings: A Summary of Research. (2009).This report provides a summary of intervention practices that are supported by empirical evidence for promoting adaptive social-emotional behavior of young children in group contexts. The focus is on toddlers and preschool children who are identified as having or being at risk for disabilities, and who have identified problems with social-emotional behaviors.

Raising a Compassionate Child in the Age of Entitlement. (2013). The secrets to raising a compassionate, responsible child are surprisingly simple, according to researchers. The five notated ways are to: assign chores; praise them not just about their act, but their internal motivation; reward for consistent behaviors; encourage open expression of emotions; and encourage them to volunteer.

Responding --or NOT Responding-- to Misbehavior. (2011). Is misbehavior in class unacceptable? Of course, but it's also unavoidable. Even in the most well-managed classrooms, kids are going to misbehave from time to time. Yet it's how we respond when students misbehave that often determines whether their behavior abates or escalates.

Response: Several Ways To Respond To"Unpredictable" Student Behavior. (2011). How can you minimize unpredictable behaviors that negatively affect your classroom? All youth workers have experienced "unpredictable" student behaviors. The key question is how to respond in positive ways that are helpful to the student exhibiting the behavior, to the rest of the students.

Suicide in Elementary School-Aged Children and Early Adolescents. (September 2016) The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide in elementary school-aged children relative to early adolescent decedents and identify potential within-group racial differences. Pediatrics.

Theater of the oppressed in an after-school program: Middle school students’ perspectives on bullying and prevention.  (September 2014).  Foram Bhukhanwala presents information on the use of Boalian Theater in bully-prevention.  Through role-play students rehearse how to react to experienced or witnessed bullying. The experience presented a safe space for middle school students to explore the feelings of all those involved in and effected by bullying.  Middle School Journal.

Transforming learning with physical spaces. September 2014. Educators are encouraged to change furniture and room design in this article. According to recent research, the 21st century learning space should encourage collaboration and promote flexibility. Research outcomes can be viewed in a video here: http://bretford.com/hillbrook-research-summary/#hrsVideo. eSchool News.

What Schools Can Do to Help Boys Succeed. (2013). Being a boy can be a serious liability in the classroom. As a group, boys are often characterized as noisy, rowdy, and hard to manage, and this sadly leads some teachers to underestimate their intellectual or academic abilities. As a way to remedy this issue, this article provides three recommendations: bring back recess; turn boys into readers; and work with young male imaginations.

What Works for Acting-Out (Externalizing) Behavior: Lessons from Experimental Evaluations of Social Interventions. (2011). This fact sheet presents lessons learned from 123 rigorously evaluated programs for children and youth that are designed to prevent and/or reduce acting-out or externalizing behavior (such as verbal and/or physical intimidation or physical aggression, defiant or argumentative behavior, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and delinquent behaviors). Overall, slightly over half of the programs (68 out of 123) reduced externalizing behavior. Many programs that teach at-risk children and youth how to manage strong emotions can reduce externalizing behavior.

What Works for Reducing Problem Behaviors in Early Childhood: Lessons from Experimental Evaluations. (August 2015) This research brief synthesizes experimental evaluations of 50 programs and assessed program impacts on externalizing and/or internalizing behaviors among children ages birth to five. Child Trends.

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Caring Relationships

7 Essential Life Skills Every Child Needs and How Parents Can Encourage Them. (2013). Adapted from Ellen Galinsky's book Mind in the Making, this article provides an overview of seven life skills that every child needs. The enumerated skills are: focus and self-control; perspective taking; communicating; making connections; critical thinking; taking on challenges; and self-directed engaged learning.

The AFCARS Report: Preliminary FY 2015 Estimates as of June 2016. (June 2016) The Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS) collects case-level information on all children in foster care and those who have been adopted with title IV-E agency involvement. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families.

Caring Adults: Important for Positive Well-Being. (2013). Data was used from the 2011/2012 National Survey of Children's Health to examine the prevalence of caring adults' relationships among children in the U.S., ages 6-17, and among different sub groups of this population, and the association between having a caring adult and indicators of positive well-being.

Child Maltreatment Facts FFY 2014: United States. (January 2017) This document presents facts about child maltreatment in FFY 2014. It is part of an array of child welfare factsheets, available on the Child Trends website, including foster care, adoption, and relative caregiving. Child Trends.

 

Creating Opportunities for Mutual Affiliation: Gang Prevention and Relational-Cultural Theory in Project YES. (2015) This case study takes an inductive approach to examine how growth-fostering relational-cultural strategies were used in a gang prevention afterschool program in a high-risk neighborhood. Afterschool Matters.

 

Don't Quit on Me: What Young People Who Left School Say About the Power of Relationships. (2015) Perspectives of young people themselves on the roles that relationships with adults and peers play in decisions about staying in, leaving and returning to high school. Center for Promise.

 

Elements of Effective Practice for Mentoring, Fourth Edition. (September 2015) MENTOR's cornerstone publication details research-informed and practitioner-approved Standards for creating and sustaining quality youth mentoring programs. MENTOR.

 

An Encore of Service: Experienced Americans Helping Vulnerable Youth. (March 2016) And they exhort our nation to meet these experienced individuals halfway, making this commitment a real and practical possibility for large numbers of older people drawn to this path. Encore.org.

 

Guide to Mentoring Boys and Young Men of Color. (2016) The fourth edition of The Elements of Effective Practice for Mentoring™ (Elements) represents the current evidence-based standards for running a safe and effective youth mentoring program. This Guide serves as a supplement to the Elements and includes additional recommended practices focusing on boys and young men of color (BYMOC). My Brother's Keeper Alliance / MENTOR.

Handle with Care: A Conversation with Maya Angelou. (2013). If there's someone who knows something about resilience, it's Maya Angelou. Overcoming a difficult childhood and extraordinary obstacles, Dr. Angelou went on to make important contributions to literature, the arts, civil rights, and women's rights. This conversation touches on critical points such as whether children can learn resilience, the connection between resilience and dignity, and how to foster resilience.

The Importance of Minority Teachers: Student Perceptions of Minority Versus White Teachers. (October 2016) Using data from the Measure of Effective Teaching study, this paper finds that students perceive minority teachers more favorably than white teachers, underscoring the importance of minority teacher recruitment and retention. Educational Researcher.

 

Left Out: The Status of Children in Philadelphia. (October 2016) The PCCY Child Wellness Index presents a snapshot of how children have fared since the onset of the Great Recession in 2008 to 2014. The Index looks at four domains that research shows are key determinants of lifetime outcomes - Economic Well-Being, Health, Early Childhood Education, and K-12 Education. Public Citizens for Children+Youth.

Meeting Students Where They Are, Emotionally. (2012). Whether it's math phobia, anxiety over working in groups, or any other emotional blocks students may have, we as educators (parents too) need to help students alleviate those blocks rather than admonish students when they experience those blocks. This article explores how. EducationWeek Teacher.

Positive Coaching: Filling Teammates Emotional Tanks.   (January 2013)  The author discusses how athletes have emotional tanks that need to be filled in order for the individual to be a part of team. By fueling your players, you can have teammates that are more coachable, more optimistic, and better handle adversity. Play-Positive/Liberty Mutual

Promoting Youth-Adult Collaboration. (2010). This newsletter describes the positive effects of positive youth development when youth are paired with adults.  Two programs in Poland and Chile are presented as examples of youth-adult collaboration and its outcomes: improving communities and increasing youth life skills.  The document includes tangible recommendations for implementing adult-youth partnerships in OST programming.

 

Research-Based Practices in Afterschool Mentoring Programs. (2015) Following a systematic review of the literature related to structured afterschool mentoring programs, the study uncovers seven components and six activities proven through empirical research to be effective in formal afterschool mentoring programs. Afterschool Matters.

 

Social and Emotional Learning Practices: A Self-Reflection Tool for Afterschool Staff. (September 2015) The tool is designed to help afterschool staff reflect upon their own social and emotional competencies and their ability to support young people's SEL through program practices. American Institutes for Research.

Student Success Better Predicted by Personalities than Intelligence; Why Being Smart Isn’t Enough.  (January 2015).  Recent studies have found personality, outgoing and conscientious in particular, to better predict success than intelligence. These findings speak to the importance of character building and confidence boosting programs. Medical Daily.

Suicide in Elementary School-Aged Children and Early Adolescents. (September 2016) The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide in elementary school-aged children relative to early adolescent decedents and identify potential within-group racial differences. Pediatrics.

 

Supporting Social and Emotional Development Through Quality Afterschool Programs. (July 2015) This brief shares recent research on how afterschool programs contribute to the development of these competencies, and offers some next step recommendations to both practitioners and researchers. American Institutes for Research.

 

Two-Generation Approaches. (May 2016) The purpose of this document is to provide local communities and practitioners with an overview of the research, best practices, and many resources available to stakeholders interested in two-generation approaches (serving children and adults). US Department of Education.

 

Ways of Being: A Model for Social and Emotional Learning. (January 2015).  Young people often struggle with social and emotional obstacles. Complete with case examples, this publication teaches readers about self-awareness and goal development. University of Minnesota Extension.

What is a Comprehensive Approach to Student Supports? (2009). Given the current difficulties confronting so many schools, more and more leaders are calling for a renewed focus on student/learning supports. This is seen in the growing number of statements related to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) reauthorization calling for “a comprehensive approach” to supporting students (and their families). This paper explores what a “comprehensive approach” entails.

What Young People Need to Thrive: Leveraging the Strengthening Families Act to Promote Normalcy. (2015) This brief highlights the importance of normalcy to the overall healthy development of young people in foster care. The Annie E. Casey Foundation.

Why and When Peer Prediction is Superior to Self-Prediction. (2012). Sometimes it's easier to make decisions for our friends and others than plan our own lives. We are able to make a more objective choice. In this research study, Helzer & Dunning's research found 'peer-prediction' to be much more accurate than 'self-prediction' in estimating whether we could achieve a particular goal.

Youth who are “Disconnected” and Those Who Then Reconnect: Assessing the Influence of Family, Programs, Peers and Community. (2009) This report examines what leads children to disconnect from school, family, and community life, and what helps them reconnect.  It highlights possible indicators of disconnection, and discusses the importance of job training and caring adults to initiate reconnection.

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Mentoring

Background Research: Mentoring Programs. (2005). This document provides a summary of mentoring research that highlights the positive outcomes of effective mentoring, as well as effective methods for recruiting, screening, training, and integrating mentors.

Eat Well, Stay Active, Have Fun: A Guide for Mentors. (2011). The Harvard School of Public Health has developed a new free resource to help mentors make healthy eating and physical activity natural parts of the mentor-mentee relationship. It includes information on nutrition and physical activity, tips on how to promote healthier habits throughout the course of a mentoring relationship, examples of activities that mentors and mentees can do together, and a list of resources for further information.

An Encore of Service: Experienced Americans Helping Vulnerable Youth. (March 2016) And they exhort our nation to meet these experienced individuals halfway, making this commitment a real and practical possibility for large numbers of older people drawn to this path. Encore.org.

Fostering Close and Effective Relationships in Youth Mentoring Programs. (2007). This publication explores best practices in mentoring relationships. Research suggests that positive youth outcomes are linked to the duration and consistency of mentoring meetings. Supervision questions for mentors are listed and ensure help to accountability. Research in Action.

Guide to Mentoring Boys and Young Men of Color. (2016) The fourth edition of The Elements of Effective Practice for Mentoring™ (Elements) represents the current evidence-based standards for running a safe and effective youth mentoring program. This Guide serves as a supplement to the Elements and includes additional recommended practices focusing on boys and young men of color (BYMOC). My Brother's Keeper Alliance / MENTOR.

 

Measuring and Understanding Authentic Youth Engagement: The Youth-Adult Partnership Rubric. (2016) A new rubric helps observers assess whether afterschool activities and programs promote authentic youth-adult partnerships. Afterschool Matters.

Mentoring Millennials. (2010). The makeup of the global workforce is undergoing a seismic shift: in four years Millennials - the people born between 1977 and 1997 - will account for nearly half the employees in the world. Research into the varying expectations and needs of employees acress four generations has given us a more nuanced view of Millenials and uncovered several resources efficient ways to mentor them.

Peer to Peer Pressures. (2008).  In this article, youth mentoring versus adult mentoring is debated.  Research shows that the mentoring field is expanding, and with that so is the use of peer-to-peer youth mentoring.  However, maintaining quality mentoring requires much more structure and monitoring for high school mentoring programs.

People, Places, and Possibilities: Integrating Mentoring and After-School. (2006).  This article looks at the partnership between after-school programs and mentoring programs.  It summarizes the importance of mentoring ,and calls attention to other research within the field.  Resources on implementing and integrating mentoring within after-school programming are provided.

Research-Based Practices in Afterschool Mentoring Programs. (2015) Following a systematic review of the literature related to structured afterschool mentoring programs, the study uncovers seven components and six activities proven through empirical research to be effective in formal afterschool mentoring programs. Afterschool Matters.

The Ripple Effect. (2007). This article demonstrates ways to combine effective mentoring relationships with civic engagement.  It explains how this partnership can also aid in youth development and community improvement.  In addition, there are sample activities for mentors and mentees to work on together.

Side by Side Superheroes. (2013). "Inquiry, like artistry may be acquired best through informal yet intense collaboration between novices and experts," psychology educator Susan Engel writes. In today's guest Inservice post, Engel recounts an impromptu drawing session between her 25-year-old son, an artist, and her 5-year-old nephew. They sat side-by-side drawing and discussing the Hulk, and Engel shows just how much Ike's drawing abilities evolved over the course of that morning. Zeroing in on the potential of informal learning, Engel points to implications for educational practice.

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