Document Library

Health, Wellness, Safety, & Nutrition

These documents pertain to the mental and physical wellbeing of children and youth; and to identifying and addressing destructive behaviors and abuse. 

 

Indoor and Outdoor Environment Sexual Health and Relationships
Fitness and Nutrition Substance Abuse
Mandated Reporting Trauma, Abuse, and Neglect
Mental Health and Wellness Violence and Aggression
Program Safety  

 

Indoor and Outdoor Environment

The ABCs of Successful Classroom Design. (November 2014). Researchers have discovered several environmental factors which contribute to learning. Natural light, a comfortable temperature, and classroom appearance have been connected to bettered academic performance. HealthDay.

Creating School Environments That are Sensitive to Trauma. (2012). The tragedy in Newtown, Conn., demonstrates the need for educators to help develop "trauma-sensitive schools," according to the blog post written by Eric Rossen, a nationally certified school psychologist and licensed psychologist in Maryland. At "trauma-sensitive schools," educators are responsive "to the potential impact of trauma and adverse experiences on students' lives" and help ensure that all students "feel safe, connected, and supported," writes Rossen, co-editor of "Supporting and Educating Traumatized Students: A Guide for School-Based Professionals."

Growing our Kids in Healthy Soil: New Research on Environmental Influences on Children's Food Intake. (2010). Our present generation is growing up unhealthy. Childhood obesity continues to be on the rise, currently at 18% among adolescents, possibly leading to a generation of children with shorter lifespans than their parents.

 

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Fitness and Nutrition

For an extensive list of Sports and Fitness documents, please visit the PYSC Documents page within the Philadelphia Youth Sports Collaborative (PYSC) website.

The 2013 Healthy Lunchtime Challenge: Cookbook. (2013). Sheer inspiration: that's the common ingredient in every recipe that was received from more than 1,300 junior chefs who whipped up their best dishes for the second annual Healthy Lunchtime Challenge & Kids' "State Dinner". This cookbook presents recipes from selected winners in the competition.

Adolescent Health Strategic Planning Guide. (2010). Improving the Health of Youth - A Guide for State-Level Strategic Planning and Action. A guide designed to provide tools and practical ideas for developing and implementing an adolescent health strategic plan. It draw from the strategic planning field and the practical experience of state public health professionals who have developed and implemented adolescent health plans.

Adolescent Summer Care Arrangements and Risk for Obesity the Following School Year. August 2011. Researchers collected data on participant BMI and risk factors known to predict obesity. Young people who regularly engaged in organized summer activities displayed a significantly lower risk of obesity. Journal of Adolescence.

Advancing Summer Meals Through Collective Impact. (2014). For kids, summertime should mean food, friends and fun. But for kids who rely on school meals, summer can be a time of uncertainty about where and when they'll have access to healthy food. This report presents a case study of how significant results were achieved through intentional collaboration around summer meals in Detroit and Baltimore. No Kid Hungry.

Adverse Childhood Experiences: Assessing the Impact on Health and School Engagement And the Mitigating Role of Resilience. (December 2014). Researchers found children’s adverse childhood experiences to be associated with lower school engagement rates and higher rates of chronic disease. The article also explores the power of resilience in the lives of these young people. Health Affairs.

Afterschool Program Participation, Youth Physical Fitness, and Overweight. (2013). Fighting childhood obesity has become a key policy focus. The role of community based interventions to promote physical activity is an important part of an overall strategy to increase physical activity for youth. This individually linked, longitudinal study examines whether community-based afterschool physical activity programs lead to improved youth fitness and lower obesity rates.

Are our Kids Active Enough? New Reports Says Afterschool Can Help. (2013). According to the Department of Health and Human Services, only about half of kids meet the current guidelines of at least 60 minutes of daily exercise. Due to increased pressure on schools to raise standardized test scores, physical activity is no longer a priority, and afterschool programs can be an integral partner to keep kids active, healthy and engaged in school.

Before the School Bell Rings: How a Before-School Physical Activity Program Improves Executive Functions. (2015) This article highlights a three-year study of school-related outcomes for children participating in the BOKS before-school activity program. Afterschool Matters.

Bok-what?  Aurora Schools Try a New Form of Fitness.  (February 2015).  In an Aurora, Colorado afterschool program, students are participating in a physical activity called ‘Bokwa.’  Developed by Los Angeles fitness instructor Paul Mavi, the dance exercise requires students draw numbers and letters with their feet.  Chalkbeat Colorado.

Building a Culture of Health by Creating Opportunities for Boys and Young Men of Color. (October 2016) This document is an executive summary of seven issue briefs that were commissioned by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Forward Promise initiative to better understand thes barriers that America's young men of color face and promising ways for our nation to overcome them. Moriah Group.

 

Can P.E. Make Kids Smarter? September 2014. Researchers of University of Texas at Austin examined the relationship between physical activity and knowledge acquisition. Cognitive functioning dramatically improved after children engaged in physical activity. University of Texas Know Web Initiative.

Changing Lives, Saving Lives: A Step-by-Step Guide to Developing Exemplary Practices in Healthy Eating, Physical Activity and Food Security in Afterschool Programs. (2010). This guide is designed to help out-of-school time programs and staff strengthen their afterschool program to help students develop healthy lifestyle habits.

Childhood Adversity and Adult Reports of Food Insecurity Among Households With Children. (2016) This study investigated the association between female caregivers' adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and household and child food insecurity, taking into account depressive symptoms. American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

 

Cost Effectiveness of Childhood Obesity. (July 2015) A published CHOICES overview paper discusses the rigorous methods behind four preventive childhood obesity strategies that were found to be more cost-effective than existing clinical interventions to treat obesity. Childhood Obesity Intervention Cost Effectiveness Study.

Creating Equal Opportunities for a Healthy Weight. (2014). Reducing disparities, understanding health equity, building physical and social environments for physical activity in high-risk communities are some of the integral topics raised in this thorough report on creating equal opportunities for a healthy weight.

The Current State of Obesity Solution in the United States. (2014). This report chronicles the current epidemiology of obesity in the U.S., the impact on early care and education, and strategies at the community and state level.

Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Policies. (2011). The obesity epidemic has not spared even the nation's youngest children; about 20% of children are already overweight or obese before they enter school, and rates are even higher among low-income and minority children. This report is dedicated to providing succinct information on childhood obesity prevention specifically for policymakers.

Eat Well, Stay Active, Have Fun: A Guide for Mentors. (2011). The Harvard School of Public Health has developed a new free resource to help mentors make healthy eating and physical activity natural parts of the mentor-mentee relationship. It includes information on nutrition and physical activity, tips on how to promote healthier habits throughout the course of a mentoring relationship, examples of activities that mentors and mentees can do together, and a list of resources for further information.

E-Games May Not Sway Youths' Habitual Physical Activity. (2013). Experts recommend that children get at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day. Games like Dance Dance Revolution, or those available through Xbox Kinect and Wii Sports, were thought to help youth meet those recommendations, but a new study suggests that these e-games may not really have an effect on habitual physical activity.

empowerME4Life. (2013) A fun and practical 8-session healthy living course equipping kids ages 8-12 with new attitudes, skills and knowledge about eating better and moving more-for life. Alliance for a Healthier Generation.

 

F as in Fat: How Obesity Threatens America's Future. (2011). Obesity is one of the most challenging health crises the country has ever faced. Two-thirds of adults and nearly one-third of children and teens are currently obese or overweight, putting them at increased risk for more than 20 major diseases, including type 2 diabetes and heart disease. It's not just our health that is suffering: obesity-related medical costs and a less productive workforce are hampering America's ability to compete in the global economy.

 

'Fed Up' Portrays Obese Kids As Victims In A Sugar-Coated World.   (May 2014).  National Public Radio (NPR) discusses the documentary film ‘Fed Up’, which aims to get to the bottom of our childhood obesity epidemic in the United States. The documentary points to added sugars in our foods as the reason for childhood obesity. NPR.

 

A Fifteen Year Profile of Children's Overall Health. (2014). Having good overall health is basic to children's optimal development. This article examines trends in health status for children ages birth through 17, nationally and across states, and across family income-levels.

First Lady Announced After-School Initiative. (2014). Michelle Obama introduced a broad, five-year initiative to make afterschool programs a healthier, more active environment for millions of children, saying the changes would also help the children's performance during the other hours of the day.

Five Things You Should Know About the Presidential Youth Fitness Program. (2014). The new Presidential Youth Fitness Program promotes healthy lifestyles, empowers students and parents, and supports quality education. This brief article provides five things physical educators should know about the program.

Food Funder Compass: Navigating Your Path to Impact. (2013). Donors get pitched a lot, and food-related funding can be a complicated space. This food compass aims to clarify this space, and identifies four primary social impact areas where donors seek change: health & hunger; environment; vibrant communities; and rights & equity.

Food Hardship in America: Households with Children Especially Hard Hit. (September 2016) This report offers additional summary and recommendations regarding a 2015 Gallup survey reporting national, state, and metropolitan statistical area (MSA) rates of food hardship - this time noting distinctions for households with and without children. Food Research & Action Center.

Four Simple Strategies to get Your Child Moving. (2011). The purpose of this report is to inspire and challenge parents, teachers, coaches and any other adults that care about children, to stand up in the fight for bringing healthy play and activity back into children's lives.

Get Healthy Philly Data Brief. June 2014. Get Healthy Philly has compiled data on obesity, nutrition, and physical activity from the Center for Disease Control (CDC) 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). The full data brief includes highlights on obesity changes between 2009 and 2013 as well as youth nutrition habits. Get Healthy Philly.   

Group of West Philly Kids Continue to Fight for Food Justice. (2011). Members of the Youth Urban Mobile Market (YUMM), one of five organizations selected by the Food Fit Philly's Healthy Cart programs this summer, are determined to bring fresh produce to low-income neighborhoods. Over the next year, Food Fit Philly plans to launch a total of twenty mobile carts.

Growing our Kids in Healthy Soil: New Research on Environmental Influences on Children's Food Intake. (2010). Our present generation is growing up unhealthy. Childhood obesity continues to be on the rise, currently at 18% among adolescents, possibly leading to a generation of children with shorter lifespans than their parents.

Healthy Celebrations Make Healthy Students. (October 2014). The author of this article calls for program-wide standards related to nutrition. When a program or school sets out standards for school lunches, vending machines and celebration treats, students have been found to change the way they think about food. Michael and Susan Dell Center for Healthy Living.  

HEPA Standards. (2011). The NAA standards for healthy eating and physical activity (HEPA) are up-to-date, evidence-based, practical values that foster the best possible nutrition and physical activity outcomes for children in grades K-12 attending OST programs. NAA hopes that sites, programs, licensing boards and even national programs will aspire to achieve, emulate and disseminate this list.

How Exercise Can Boost Brains. (October 2014). Researchers at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign recently published findings on a study linking exercise and executive functioning. Students who engaged in regular exercise over the course of the school year scored higher on executive function tests. “They were better at…the ability to block out irrelevant information and concentrate on the task at hand and had heightened abilities to toggle between two cognitive tasks.” The New York Times.

How to Teach Kids About Healthy Eating (And Have Fun at the Same Time!). (2014). This post on the useful site One Green Planet describes four strategies to promote healthy eating. The author suggests fully engaging students in understanding where food comes from, how to cook healthy food and the danger of processed food. One Green Planet.

Hunger Doesn't Take a Vacation: Summer Nutrition Status Report. (June 2016) This report measures the reach of the Summer Nutrition Programs in July 2015, nationally and in each state, and examines the impact of trends and policies on program participation. Food Research & Action Center.

 

Hunger Doesn't Take a Vacation: Summer Nutrition Status Report 2009. (2009). This annual report from the Food Research and Action Center (FRAC) looks at national trends around participation in the Summer Nutrition Programs by comparing the number of children receiving summer meals to the number of children receiving school lunch during the regular school year.

In-Shape Students Outscore Obese Peers. (2012). Middle school students in prime physical shape outperform their overweight and obese peers both on tests and grades, according to new research from Michigan State University. The study claims to be the first study that links students' physical fitness to both objective (tests) and subjective (grades) forms of classroom evaluation. It examines how students' academic performance was affected by five aspects of physical fitness: body composition, cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, muscle strength, and muscular endurance.

Kids May Be More Likely to Exercise When Friends Do. (March 2015).  A study conducted out of Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center in Ohio reveals students’ exercising preferences and habits.  The study outcomes detail differences based on age and discusses certain barriers including lack of time and fear of injury.  Health Day.

Making a Difference: Evaluating the Girls in the Game (GIG) After-School Program. (2012). This randomized controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness of the Girls in the Game (GIG) after-school program (ASP) in promoting social-emotional development and reducing body mass index (BMI) and obesogenic behaviors among a group of minority, low-income girls.

Monitoring the Uptake of National AfterSchool Association Physical Activity Standards. (December 2015) The study compares findings from previous reports and surveys to analyze the rate of out-of-school time providers adopting the NAA physical activity standards into their programming. NIOST / RTI International.

 

More Children Eat Fruit in School, Study Shows. (March 2015). A new study has shown that the efforts made by the Obama administration to introduce healthier food options in schools, is having its intended effect. The percentage of students choosing fruit has increased since the newly presented options, which has important implications for the lessening of obesity rates and promoting healthier youth. NY Times.

Never heard of FitnessGram? It’s only the “gold standard” of fitness testing for kids. September 2014. The FitnessGram was developed more than 30 years ago by the Cooper Institute of Dallas and helps assess fitness as it relates to student health. A FitnessGram app is available for download and assists in tracking “cardiovascular, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility and body composition.” The Post and Courier.

New Strategies to Improve Food Marketing to Children. (2013). Federal efforts to address the impact of food marketing on children began more than thirty years ago, when the Federal Trade Commission sought comment on strategies to reduce young children's exposure to food advertising. Although federal efforts have led to modest improvements, commercial interests have consistently overridden the health concerns of children. This article provides new strategies to address this issue.

Nourishing mind and body through school gardens.  (April 2015).  Julia Parker-Dickonson offers suggestions on incorporating wellness education and academic subject matter into school garden cultivation. Educators can utilize useful curricula programs like Growing Classroom, Math in the Garden, Books in Bloom, and the Junior Master Garden Guide.  SmartBlog on Education.

Nutrition and Physical Activity PBL Toolkit. (2012). Everyone loves food, perhaps too much in this day and age. With an obesity epidemic on the rise, and children's obesity rates at 40.7% within the City of Philadelphia, it is important that we teach children how to eat a balanced diet and exercise right. Within this unit children will be guided to learn about where food comes from, what the five food groups are, what the digestive system is, what serving sizes are, how to read a food label, what physical activity is, and how healthy they actually are.

Pennsylvania Health Officials Already Tackling Rising Obesity Rate among Low-Income Children. (2013). Obesity affects some groups more than others and is often associated with age, income, race, and ethnicity. Recently launched programs by the state of Pennsylvania include initiates such as: Safe Routes to School Program, Walk Works Program, and changes to WIC.   

Philadelphia School Battles Students' bad Eating Habits, on Campus and Off. (2011). With 20 percent of the nation's children obese, the United States Department of Agriculture has proposed new standards for federally subsidized school meals that call for more balanced meals and, for the first time, a limit on sweets. The current standard specifies only a minimum calorie count, which some schools meet by adding sweet foods.

Physical activity attenuates the mid-adolescent peak in insulin resistance but by late adolescence the effect is lost: a longitudinal study with annual measures from 9-16 years. (March 2015) Findings shows insulin resistance peaks in early adolescence, so exercise crucial during this period. Brad Metcalf, University of Exeter.

Physical Development and Daily Health Habits. (2013). Adolescence is a period of tremendous development and physical growth. The physical growth that occurs during adolescence is second only to the growth that occurs during the first year of life. To support this accelerated growth and development, adolescents have nutritional needs that are greater than those of children and adults. This article provides information on how to nurture healthy habits and reduce risk.

The Play Deficit. (2013). In this article, Psychologist and Research Professor Peter Gray argues that children today are cossetted and pressured in equal measure, and that without the freedom to play, they will never grow up. Furthermore, he highlights how the decline in opportunity to play has also been accompanied by a decline in characteristics such as empathy and a rise in narcissism.

Prizes for primary children who eat most fruit and veg make them healthier. (October 2014). A study carried out in England tracked 600 elementary school aged students participating in a healthy-eating program. Students were divided into three groups: one control group, one group receiving stickers and small prizes when students chose healthy lunches, and one competition-focused group in which students received prizes if they made the healthiest choices in their assigned group of four. Researchers found that incentives encouraged students to choose healthy meals and incorporating competition proved to be the most effective motivator. The Conversation.

Promoting physical activity in out-of-school time programs: We built the bridge – can we walk over it? (2014). Many OST programs have adopted the NAA Health Eating and Physical Activity (HEPA) Standards. This widespread implementation allows for research on efficacy at OST sites. Preventive Medicine.

Psychosocial Effects of Reverse-integrated Basketball Activity for Young People with Physical Disability in Israel. (2012).
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of participation in different sport modalities on quality of life and perceived social competence in young people with physical disability.

Putting program evaluation into practice: Enhancing the Girls Just Wanna Have Fun program. (April 2015).  Authors attempted to evaluate the effectiveness of a physical activity and life-skills program serving female participants.  The study helps to support the ongoing need for evaluation and programmatic improvements based on findings and feedback.   Evaluation and Program Planning.

Qualitative Evaluation of GoGirlGo! Insights From Staff on Using a Curriculum Within After-School Programs to Improve Physical Activity.  (2014).  GoGirlGo! (GGG) is an afterschool physical activity program designed for girls.  GGG staff shared the program’s strengths as well as opportunities for growth.  The article includes a list of interview questions which could serve as a model for needs assessments.  Health Promotion Practice.

Rates of SNAP Receipt Stabilize or Drop in All Regions for First Time Since Great Recession. (July 2015) This brief uses data from the American Community Survey to document rates of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) receipt in 2013, to track changes since the onset of the recession in 2007, and to monitor receipt by region. University of New Hampshire, Carsey School of Public Policy.

 

Reducing Childhood Obesity Through U.S. Federal Policy: A Microsimulation Analysis. (August 2014). Researchers projected the impact of federal policy over the next twenty years. Afterschool activity programs are expected to dramatically reduce childhood obesity in youth aged 6-12 years old based on the simulation. American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

Research-Based Recommendations to Improve Child Nutrition in Schools and Out-of-School Time Programs. (2009). This brief from Child Trends summarizes the current guidelines and recommendations for child nutrition and provides information for schools and out-of-school time programs about how to measure child nutrition.

School Breakfast Scorecard: 2014-2015 School Year. (February 2016) The annual report measures states on the rate of participation of low-income children in the federally-funded School Breakfast Program. Also see companion piece: School Breakfast: Making it Work in Large School Districts. Food Research & Action Center (FRAC).

School's Out, Now What? (2013). Regardless of the time of the year, physical activity is an essential component of a healthy lifestyle. This article provides suggestions and additional resources to help children reach the recommended 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous activity every day.

State Indicator Report on Physical Activity. (2014). This report presents state-level information on physical activity behaviors and on environmental and policy supports for physical activity. It shows that physical activity among adults and high school students is higher in some states than others. Overall, most states have environmental and policy strategies in place that encourage physical activity.

Studies examine U.S. meals in schools. (November 2014). Researchers recently analyzed the nutritional content of students' lunches brought from home. The lunches, on average, had more sodium and less fruits, vegetables and whole grains than lunches provided by the school. Reuters.

Study: Kids are Less Fit than Their Parents Were. (2013). Today's kids can't keep up with their parents. An analysis of studies of millions of children around the world finds they don't run as fast or as far as their parents did when they were young. The American Heart Association says it's the first to show that children's fitness has declined worldwide over the last three decades.

Study Links Fitness and Academics. (2009). This article references a study that reviewed results of fitness assessments of students across Texas and concluded that physically fit students in Texas are more likely to do well on the state's standardized test and have better attendance.

Study Recommends Daily PE, Activity Breaks in Schools. (2013). A recent study found that offering daily physical-education courses in school and physical activity breaks in the classroom as well as encouraging students to bike and walk to school would benefit students. Federal recommendations call for children ages 6 to 17 to get 60 minutes of physical activity each day. A Colorado elementary school, which has been recognized nationally, offers students options for activity breaks such as dancing, jumping rope, relay races and power walking.

Hunger Doesn't Take a Vacation: Summer Nutrition Status Report. (2014). In 2013, for the first time in a decade, the number of low-income children eating summer meals saw a substantial increase. Not only did the number grow, but there was also progress in reaching a higher proportion of children in need. This report measures the success of Summer Nutrition Programs at the national and state levels.

Tackling Summer Hunger. (2012). Summer is a critical time for children's academic and physical well-being; during the summer, children are at a higher risk of both obesity and hunger. While federal programs exist to help fill the gap of free and reduced price lunches during the school year, they only reach a fraction of kids in low-income communities. This report summarizes Share Our Strengths programming in 2012.

A Teacher's Guide to Engaging a New Generation of Anti-Hunger Leaders. (2013) YSA encourages educators to browse through the rich experiences that its Semester of Service teachers have shared in this guide. Readers can build these experiences into their own teaching, engage students in addressing this issue, and begin to develop a plan of action. Youth Service America.

The Role of Out-of-School Time in Reducing Hunger and Preventing Obesity.  (2014).   Authors discuss the Alliance for a Healthier Generation’s OST initiative. The article points out the connection between obesity and hunger and features success stories from the field. NIOST. 

‘To Burn Off Calories in this Soda, Walk 5 Miles.’ (October 2014). Researchers at Johns Hopkins University recently implemented an initiative throughout low-income neighborhoods of Baltimore. The team displayed brightly colored signs in corner store windows; the signs detailed the amount of energy required to burn off a soft drink. Sugary drink sales declined as a result of the initiative and teens chose to purchase smaller portion sizes. Healthy Day.

Using State Laws & Regulations to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity in Afterschool Programs. (November 2016) A new report examines an emerging trend that uses state policy to promote healthy eating and physical activity in afterschool and OST programs. Report concludes that the state policy approach holds significant promise if it avoids creating unfunded mandates. RTI International.

U.S. Standards for School Snacks Move Beyond Cafeteria to Fight Obesity. (2013). The Obama administration on Thursday released long-awaited nutrition standards for foods that schoolchildren can buy outside the cafeteria, changes that are intended to combat climbing childhood obesity rates.

Weigh In: Talking to Your Children About Weight + Health. (2013). Many factors have led to a nation where one in three children is overweight or obese. This guide was created to help parents and caregivers talk with their children about weight and health in ways that are factual, practical, and sensitive to the many different emotions that may arise from this complex issue of weight.

What We Stand to Lose in our Obsession to Win. (2012) The report is a wake-up call, particularly for parents and families, intended to serve as a catalyst for cultural change in sport. True Sport.

What Works in Programs to Prevent Childhood Obesity: Lesson from Experimental Evaluations of Programs and Interventions. (2010). This new Child Trends fact sheet reviews 50 programs whose impacts on nutrition, physical activity, and/or weight loss have been rigorously evaluated. The programs targeted children and youth from 1 to 19 years of age.

White House Childhood Obesity Task Force Report. (2010). In February, First Lady Michelle Obama launched the Let's Move! campaign to solve the childhood obesity epidemic within a generation. As part of this effort, President Barack Obama established the Task Force on Childhood Obesity to develop and implement an interagency plan that details a coordinated strategy, identifies key benchmarks, and outlines an action plan to end the problem of childhood obesity within a generation. The action plan report was released in May 2010 and presents a series of 70 specific recommendations, many of which can be implemented right away.

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance-United States, 2015. (June 2016) This report summarizes results for 118 health behaviors plus obesity, overweight, and asthma from the 2015 national YRBS and overall trends in health behaviors during 1991-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 

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Mandated Reporting

Child Abuse Reporting: Overview. (October 2014). This publication reviews the Pennsylvania's Child Protective Services Law (CPSL). The document also provides detail on several updates that have recently been made to the law over the past year. Pennsylvania Medical Society.

Health Matters: The Role of Health and the Health Sector in Place-Based Initiatives for Young Children. (2009). Commissioned by the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, this report focuses on the growing interest in multi-sector, place-based initiatives to address the needs of young children and their families. Health Matters identifies 8 exemplary, place-based initiatives, and then zeroes in on the role of health and the health sector within those initiatives.

Keeping Children Safe: Afterschool Staff and Mandated Child Maltreatment Reporting.  (2014). This article reviews the unique position of OST providers in relation to mandated reporting.  Training regarding mandated reporting laws is recommended and may better prepare staff when faced with difficult, but necessary, decisions.  OST supervisors and administrators may require more specialized training. NIOST.

Link Between Early Trauma, Bad Health. (2013). This article looks at the effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on life outcomes. Studies found that the higher one's ACE score based on childhood, the more likely one is to have diseases as an adult. This ACE research has transformed the big question from "what's wrong with an individual" to "what happened to them."

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Mental Health and Wellness

Access to Mental Health Care. (2013). Part of a three-brief series from Child Trends, The State of Mental Health Among U.S. Adolescents. The series is part of Child Trends' Adolescent Health Highlights series focus on adolescent mental health. Research shows that approximately one in five adolescents has a diagnosable mental health disorder, a leading cause of disability among this age group. The briefs include strategies and approaches to reducing mental health disorders among adolescents. Early intervention or prevention can be an effective way to address potential mental disorders before they reach the stage requiring treatment. The Child Trends DataBank includes brief summaries of well-being indicators, including several that are related to mental health and mental health disorders.

Are the Children Well? A Model and Recommendations for Promoting the Mental Wellness of the Nation's Young People. (2014). The mental health challenges our country's young people face call for shifting the focus of policy and practice from illness, to promotion of wellness and flourishing. This report argues that the distinction between mental and physical health is artificial and harmful, and considers the evidence for interventions that can improve mental wellness at multiple levels.

Assessing Stress in Children and Youth: A Guide for Out-of-School Time Program Practitioners. (2010).This brief identifies characteristics of youth who may be particularly vulnerable to stress; provides two scales to ease stress among adolescents; and includes tips and resources for helping youth deal with stress.

Behavioral Health Trends in the United States: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. (September 2015) This report shows that the percentage of people ages 12-17 who smoke, drink or abuse certain drugs is falling according to findings from 2014 survey data. U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

 

Building a Culture of Health by Creating Opportunities for Boys and Young Men of Color. (October 2016) This document is an executive summary of seven issue briefs that were commissioned by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Forward Promise initiative to better understand thes barriers that America's young men of color face and promising ways for our nation to overcome them. Moriah Group.

 

Can Technology Boost Students’ Mindfulness about Anxiety? (February 2015). Children and teenagers often experience anxiety around social situations, causing general feelings of unpleasantness. This article highlights a new study that suggests that technological improvements in our ability to observe physiological responses could lessen the amount of unconscious anxiety. EdSurge.com

Children of Alcoholics: A Kit for Educators. (2001). This kit details age-appropriate discussions to have with children experiencing addiction at home. The National Association for Children of Alcoholics (NACoA) also includes useful handouts and a list of resources. NACoA.

Crisis and Opportunity in Delaware's Child Welfare System. (March 2016) The report documents how a data-driven reform effort called Outcomes Matter helped improve the well-being of Delaware's children and families. The Annie E. Casey Foundation.

Critical Mental Health Resources for Students. (2013). With the pressure facing most youth today, it is essential to take mental health seriously. This resource is meant to provide students with quality information on maintaining good mental health and identifying mental health issues.

Exercise Helps Children with ADHD in Study. September 2014. Recent research has found physical activity to be associated with improved mood and attention in youth experiencing ADHD. GoNoodle, an online program that leads students in “brain breaks,” is discussed. Wall Street Journal.

Four strategies to proof your child and family serving organization. (January 2015).  Laurie Ellington offers four strategies providers may apply on an ongoing basis.  She encourages focus on engagement, stress resilience, strong performance and improvements in program culture.  Children’s Mental Health Network.

 

Health Barriers to Learning and the Education Opportunity Gap. (2015) This report highlights the important but sometimes overlooked issue of student health and its relationship to achievement in the classroom. The correlation can be especially profound among students from low-income families. Education Commission of the States.

Kids and Screen Time: What Does the Research Say? August 2014. A recent study published in Computers and Human Behaviorrevealed the potential effects of prolonged screen time. Sixth graders who did not engage with technology for five days were asked to identify the emotion in over 50 faces. These students scored significantly higher on these tests than the control group. NPR.

Locking Up Traumatized Girls is No Way to Help Them. (April 2015). This article highlights the dangers of incarcerating young girls who have high rates of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs). The author discusses how the juvenile justice system is a blunt tool used to address a much more traumatizing and complex issue. Huffington Post.

The Longitudinal Effects of After-school Program Experiences, Quantity, and Regulatable Features on Children's Social-Emotional Development(December 2014).  Researchers discovered a positive association between afterschool participation and social self-control and assertion. Youth ASP experiences and social-emotional development was also linked to staff experience, wages and staff to student ratios. Children and Youth Services Review.

 

Mental Health Disorders. (2013). Part of a three-brief series from Child Trends, The State of Mental Health Among U.S. Adolescents. The series is part of Child Trends' Adolescent Health Highlights series focus on adolescent mental health. Research shows that approximately one in five adolescents has a diagnosable mental health disorder, a leading cause of disability among this age group. The briefs include strategies and approaches to reducing mental health disorders among adolescents. Early intervention or prevention can be an effective way to address potential mental disorders before they reach the stage requiring treatment. The Child Trends DataBank includes brief summaries of well-being indicators, including several that are related to mental health and mental health disorders.

Research Roundup: Mindfulness in Schools. (October 2013). Emily Campbell offers a quick review of four studies examining the benefits of mindfulness education. Details on the technique in action are available via the provided links for Mindful Schools (www.mindfulschools.org) and Move-into-Learning (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aukqfWGYeoA). Greater Good.

Positive Mental Health: Resiliance. (2013). Part of a three-brief series from Child Trends, The State of Mental Health Among U.S. Adolescents. The series is part of Child Trends' Adolescent Health Highlights series focus on adolescent mental health. Research shows that approximately one in five adolescents has a diagnosable mental health disorder, a leading cause of disability among this age group. The briefs include strategies and approaches to reducing mental health disorders among adolescents. Early intervention or prevention can be an effective way to address potential mental disorders before they reach the stage requiring treatment. The Child Trends DataBank includes brief summaries of well-being indicators, including several that are related to mental health and mental health disorders.

Program Aims to Build Social Emotional Learning for Educators.  (January 2015).  A Tennessee socio-emotional learning program targets educators. School staff are trained to be more self-aware, empathetic, and emotionally stable. Chalkbeat Tennessee. 

Skill Building Approaches to Anxiety-Fueled Work Avoidance. (March 2015). Teachers sometimes struggle to meet the educational and emotional needs of the youth that they are working with. As anxiety disorders are becoming more prevalent among youth, teachers need to become more creative in the ways they motivate children to work. This article suggests several ways of working with children who are suffering from anxiety or other learning disabilities that affect their classroom behavior. Huffington Post.

 

Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Related Behaviors Among Students in Grades 9-12 - United States and Selected Sites, 2015. (August 2016) This report documents that sexual minority students have a higher prevalence of many health-risk behaviors compared with nonsexual minority students, and suggests several public health actions intended to reduce disparities. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

 

Students' Happiness Goes a Long Way in Learning. (2013). The overall climate of a school begins in the classroom, and research has often focused on the role of the teacher in creating this climate. Happiness on the other hand, remains a largely overlooked variable in this equation. This article looks at how common sense happiness principles can be applied to improve the classroom climate and learning. 

 

Stress May Undermine Benefits of Exercise. (March 2015). Though exercise has been linked to improved heart functioning, these effects appear to be countered by stress related issues.  Teaching young people about both physical activity and coping mechanisms may provide more protective benefits. Health Day.

 

Suicide in Elementary School-Aged Children and Early Adolescents. (September 2016) The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide in elementary school-aged children relative to early adolescent decedents and identify potential within-group racial differences. Pediatrics.

 

Treatment Options for ADHD in Children and Teens: A Review of Research for Parents and Caregivers. (June 2012) This summary discusses the different types of treatment for ADHD and explains what research says about how each treatment improves symptoms and the risks involved with each treatment. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

Two Ways to Practice Mindfulness with Students. (November 2014). Mindfulness helps young people focus on only what is occurring in that particular moment. The article offers useful tips to help students practice both 'mindful listening' and 'mindful breathing.' ASCD.

 

Unfinished Business: More than 20 Million Children in U.S. Still Lack Sufficient Access to Essential Health Care. (November 2016) The report found that more than 20 million children are either uninsured, insured but do not receive regular primary care, or are publicly insured but do not receive essential and timely specialty care, noting that barriers to better healthcare access include high costs, lack of transportation, parents' limited English proficiency and more. Children's Health Fund.

 

Ways of Being: A Model for Social-Emotional Learning. (January 2015).  In addition to reviewing terms related to the topic, authors also include a Social and Emotional Learning Program Readiness Inventory.  Easy-to-implement guidelines are detailed and reflection activities may prove useful to when working with youth. University of Minnesota Extension.

When Kids Worry Too Much. (2010). This issue brief from the Indiana Youth Institute discusses the signs and symptoms, types of anxiety disorders, and resources for helping children with anxiety.

 

Working with children and families experiencing medical traumatic stress: A resource guide for mental health professionals. (2015) This resource guide is designed to help psychosocial professionals who are working with children and families impacted by illness or injury, especially in their role as a consultant to or collaborator with hospital-based medical professionals. Center for Pediatric Traumatic Stress.

Yoga shows psychological benefits for high-school students.  April 2012.  A 2012 Harvard Medical School study revealed the benefits of yoga for young people.  Students enrolled in yoga, as compared to their peers enrolled in general P.E. classes, showed lower rates of negative emotion and anxiety.  Yoga combines physical activity with meditation and mindfulness.  Science Daily.

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Program Safety

Child Care Facilities Emergency Planning Guide. (2009). This newly revised guide from PA's Emergency Management Agency should yield an emergency plan for child care centers that enhances safety of the staff and children in the center and satisfies the licensing requirements of the Pennsylvania Department of Public Welfare.

Keeping Students Safe and Supported: Research-Based Policy Recommendations for Executive and Legislative Officials in 2017. January 2017. Child Trends.

Safe4Athletes Handbook. (2013). This handbook, published by the non-profit Safe4Athletes, is designed to provide schools and sports programs with basic policies, guidelines, procedures, forms, and educational materials that will enable the program to install a management system that advances athlete safety and welfare.

Summer Safety Tips: A Guide to Protecting Kids When Activities Heat Up. (2011) How to create a summer survival kit and make sure your kids stay as safe as possible this summer. Care.com. 

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Sexual Health and Relationships

Afterschool and Pregnancy Prevention. (2009). This issue brief focuses on how afterschool programs help prevent teen pregnancy by encouraging good decision making and providing youth health education and positive role models in a supervised setting after school.

The Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway in Early Adolescence. (2013). The focus of this report is to highlight the early findings from a three-year study aimed at examining the overlap between bullying and sexual violence victimization and perpetration in five middle schools in a Midwest state. While these findings are preliminary, they do suggest that homophobic teasing may be a component of bullying that might increase the potential for sexual harassment later.

Changes in Contraceptive Use Among Teenagers and Young Adults. (2011). Even though the rates of teen pregnancy and childbearing in the United States have declined substantially since the early 1990s, these rates remain some of the highest in the industrialized world. Teens and young adults combined (aged 15-24) also account for roughly one-half of the 19 million new sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) diagnosed in the nation every year.

Condom Use: Indicators on Children and Youth. (October 2016) More cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were reported last year in the U.S. than ever before, according to the CDC. Meanwhile, teen condom use, which had risen between 1991 and 2003, has seen a slow and steady decline. Now, fewer than 6 in 10 sexually active high school students report having used condoms during their most recent intercourse. Child Trends.

Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States: A Guide for Providers of Victim and Support Services. (2014). Commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the US are frequently overlooked, misunderstood, and unaddressed domestic problems. This report defines the problem and provides information of how victims and support services can help.

Contraceptive and Condom Use. (2013). Almost half of high school students have had sexual intercourse. For sexually active adolescents, using effective birth control is necessary to avoid unwanted pregnancies, and using condoms can reduce the risk of sexually transmitted diseases. This report presents key research findings about contraceptive and condom use in the United States.

Dating and Sexual Relationships. (2013). Dating during adolescence is an important stage in people's lives. In spending time with a current or potential partner, adolescents are developing their romantic and sexual identities, which set the stage for their adult relationships. This Adolescent Health Highlight presents key research findings about the prevalence of and trends in adolescents dating and sexual relationships.

The Dynamics in Young Adult Romantic Relationships. (2013). In this Research Brief, Child Trends used the "Romantic Pair" subsample of a long-term study of adolescent health to describe relationship dynamics among young adults in heterosexual relationships.

Harnessing Collective Impact to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. (2013). Collective impact is gaining interest across the country as an innovative strategy to solve complex problems that cannot be addressed by individual organizations working in isolation. In the state of Georgia, this strategy is helping combat teen pregnancy.

Measuring Associations between Symptoms of Depression and Suicide in Adolescence and Unhealthy Romantic Relationships in Young Adulthood. (2013). Research suggests that issues related to suicide and depression in adolescence can negatively affect interpersonal relationships later in life. This article presents key findings from a Child Trends study of young adults who self-reported depressive symptoms and suicidal thoughts or attempts, and linked these results with their relationship outcomes later in life.

Natural Family Planning. (2013). According to recent findings from a Child Trends study, young minority women who use natural family planning (NFP) to prevent pregnancy may not be doing so correctly. There are several websites and phone apps that are making it easier to gain better fertility awareness knowledge and learn more about NFP.

Parents Matter: The Role of Parents in Teens' Decisions about Sex. (2009). This Child Trends brief explores how parenting practices that occur before adolescents have had sexual intercourse are associated with the probability of first sex by age 16.

The Prevalence of Rape Myths among Middle School Students across Gender and Socioeconomic Background. (Winter 2016) A study designed to investigate the level and type of rape myths that are endorsed among middle school youth in terms of gender and socioeconomic background is reported in this paper. Implications include finding more effective ways to target male youth and that Project Equality works to lower rape myths among middle school youth. Journal of Youth Development.

Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors: A Systematic Review. April 2013. This paper presents findings from an ongoing systematic review of research on teen pregnancy and STI prevention programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to help support evidence-based approaches to teen pregnancy prevention. ASPE.

The Reproductive Health of Young Adults: Research-Based Policy Recommendations for Executive and Legislative Officials in 2017. January 2017. Child Trends.

 

Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Related Behaviors Among Students in Grades 9-12 - United States and Selected Sites, 2015. (August 2016) This report documents that sexual minority students have a higher prevalence of many health-risk behaviors compared with nonsexual minority students, and suggests several public health actions intended to reduce disparities. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Young Adults: Prevalence, Perceived Risk, and Risk-Taking Behaviors. (2010). This Child Trends report analyzes recently released data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to provide estimates on the prevalence of and attitudes toward STDs among young adults, as well as on the behaviors that may put them at risk of contracting an STD.

"Statutory Rape:" Sex Between Young Teens and Older Individuals. (2013). Romantic relationships play an important development role in adolescents' lives. However sexual relationships between young teens and older individuals are associated with increased likelihood of engagement in risky sexual behaviors, and with poorer emotional health among adolescents. This report highlights indicators, trends, and demographic differences.

Teen Pregnancy Prevention: Research-Based Policy Recommendations for Executive and Legislative Officials in 2017. February 2017. Child Trends.

Telling It Like It Is: Teen Perspectives on Romantic Relationships. (2009). A majority of teens have been involved in a romantic relationship. This Child Trends brief summarizes findings from focus groups that explored what teens themselves have to say about these relationships. 

Using Effect Sizes to Inform Policy and Practice. May 2014. This ASPE Research Brief describes the effect sizes of evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs. In addition, the analysis was conducted as part of an ongoing systematic review of the teen pregnancy prevention literature. ASPE.

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Substance Abuse

Alcohol and Drug Problem Overview. (2012). This five page overview provides current drug and alcohol use rates among young people. Authors also discuss the rising prescription drug abuse rates. The Partnership.

Behavioral Health Trends in the United States: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. (September 2015) This report shows that the percentage of people ages 12-17 who smoke, drink or abuse certain drugs is falling according to findings from 2014 survey data. U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

 

Binge Drinking: Indicators on Children and Youth. (August 2016) Binge drinking among high schoolers declined during the 2000s, and is now at record low levels; however, as of 2015, 17% of 12thgraders reported this behavior. This document addresses these and other trends in underage drinking. Child Trends.

Connecting with Students Requires 100 Repetitions. (2012). This article explores how to handle teaching students who challenge us, especially those dealing with substance abuse. Many students cannot internalize a new behavior just because they've been told to or by practicing it once or twice. They need repetitions. But-and this is crucial-providing those 100 useful repetitions does not mean rigidly providing students with exactly the same experience 100 times in an emotionally safe environment.

Daily Cigarette Use: Indicators on Children and Youth (Updated). (December 2015) The prevalence of daily cigarette use among youth declined dramatically in the 2000s, however, in recent years, youth's use of electronic cigarettes has risen dramatically, and now surpasses their use of any other form of tobacco. Child Trends.

 

E-Cigarette Use Among Youth and Young Adults: A Report of the Surgeon General. (2016) This report confirms that the use of electronic cigarettes is growing rapidly among American youth and young adults. The findings from this report reinforce the need to support evidence-based programs to prevent youth and young adults from using tobacco in any form, including e-cigarettes. US Department of Health and Human Services.

Hoops and Healing: The Use of Athletics for Youth Involved in Recovery. (2012). The use of athletics and sports with people recovering from sub- stance abuse disorders has been well documented. Athletics has many positive advantages that lend itself to addictions treatment. This article discusses the concept of using sports to promote recovery involvement for African American youth from the viewpoint of a scholar-practitioner-athlete and a scholar-practitioner/former professional athlete.

The Philadelphia Clean Machine: A Story of Basketball and Addiction Recovery. (2011). The purpose of this paper is to describe a small but important story within this larger recovery-oriented systems transformation process that has unfolded in Philadelphia. This is the story of the Philadelphia Clean Machine-a group of recovering addicts who are using basketball as a catalyst for rebuilding their lives.

What Works for Male Children and Adolescents. (2012). Compared to females, males tend to be more likely to drop out of school, engage in delinquency, use alcohol, smoke cigarettes, and act out. This literature review synthesizes findings from 115 random assignment evaluations of interventions that targeted male and the results of those interventions.

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance-United States, 2015. (June 2016) This report summarizes results for 118 health behaviors plus obesity, overweight, and asthma from the 2015 national YRBS and overall trends in health behaviors during 1991-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 

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Trauma, Abuse, and Neglect   

2012 State of Child Welfare Report. (2012). The high-profile events of the last year, combined with the recent recommendations from Pennsylvania's Task Force on Child Protection, clearly have elevated public policy discussions about child abuse and the commonwealth's child welfare system. Pennsylvania Partnerships for Children has released its 2012 State of Child Welfare report, which provides data and insight into how Pennsylvania's child welfare system is performing at the state and local levels. The report can be an important resource for policymakers and others to consider when examining the critically important issue of keeping our children safe.

Adolescent Well-Being after Experiencing Family Homelessness. (June 2016) This is the second in a series of research briefs that draws on the Family Options Study to inform HHS and HHS grantees as they carry out their special responsibilities for preventing and ending the homelessness of families, children, and youth. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

Adverse Childhood Experiences: National and State-Level Prevalence. (2014). This report describes Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) as potentially traumatic events that can have negative, lasting effects on health and well-being. These experiences range from physical, emotional, or sexual abuse to parental divorce or the incarceration of a parent or guardian. This brief describes the prevalence of ACEs among children using nationally representative data.

 

Child Abuse Reporting: Overview. (October 2014). This publication reviews the Pennsylvania's Child Protective Services Law (CPSL). The document also provides detail on several updates that have recently been made to the law over the past year. Pennsylvania Medical Society.

 

Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States: A Guide for Providers of Victim and Support Services. (2014). Commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the US are frequently overlooked, misunderstood, and unaddressed domestic problems. This report defines the problem and provides information of how victims and support services can help.

The Future of Youth Justice: A Community-Based Alternative to the Youth Prison Model. (October 2016) America's longstanding youth prison model, which emphasizes confinement and control, exacerbates youth trauma and inhibits positive growth while failing to address public safety. This report introduces an alternate model - rooted in a continuum of community-based programs - that aims to set all children on a pathway to success. National Institute of Justice, Harvard Kennedy School.

 

Keeping Children Safe: After School Staff and Mandated Child Maltreatment Reporting. (2014). Afterschool providers serve a unique purpose in a young person's life and may be able to help identify child maltreatment. Authors explore the relationship between staff training and knowledge related to mandated reporting. Afterschool Matters.

Kids’ drawings speak volumes about home. (2014). In a recently published study, researchers found that children experiencing dysfunction at home were more likely to draw themselves farther from their parents or significantly smaller than other presented figures. Out of all age groups observed, six year olds seem to present the most unbiased and honest drawings of themselves in relation to family members. NPR.

Moving Toward Healing: Trauma and Violence and Boys and Young Men of Color. (September 2016) The purpose of this brief is to highlight the great burden that trauma, violence, adversity, and the social determinants of health impose on the health of boys and men of color. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

 

The Prevalence of Rape Myths among Middle School Students across Gender and Socioeconomic Background. (Winter 2016) A study designed to investigate the level and type of rape myths that are endorsed among middle school youth in terms of gender and socioeconomic background is reported in this paper. Implications include finding more effective ways to target male youth and that Project Equality works to lower rape myths among middle school youth. Journal of Youth Development.

 

Suicide in Elementary School-Aged Children and Early Adolescents. (September 2016) The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide in elementary school-aged children relative to early adolescent decedents and identify potential within-group racial differences. Pediatrics.

Supporting Brain Development in Traumatized Children and Youth. (August 2011). Trauma during childhood has been linked to emotional and cognitive difficulties. This publication helps providers identify signs of trauma and lists symptoms by age group. A case study offers suggestions on how to best support students faced with extreme difficulties. Child Welfare Information Gateway.

Tips to Help Teachers Address Tragedy with Students. (2012). The writer of this New York Times blog post suggests several ways teachers and parents can address the tragedy in Newtown, Conn., with students. Among the suggestions are for teachers to allow their students to write about their reactions to such events. The writer also suggests ways for students to honor the victims, such as creating a collage or bulletin board about their lives.

Trauma and Resilience. (2014). This report provides a vital look at how system involvement - in the juvenile justice or child welfare system - can cause trauma, or exacerbate underlying trauma caused by sexual abuse, violence, the death of a loved one, witnessing violence, and other experiences. This report emphasizes the opportunity to support resilience in youth, and also recognizes the risk of lifelong damage from unaddressed trauma.

Unfinished Business: More than 20 Million Children in U.S. Still Lack Sufficient Access to Essential Health Care. (November 2016) The report found that more than 20 million children are either uninsured, insured but do not receive regular primary care, or are publicly insured but do not receive essential and timely specialty care, noting that barriers to better healthcare access include high costs, lack of transportation, parents' limited English proficiency and more. Children's Health Fund.

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Violence and Aggression

After-School Programs for Delinquency Prevention: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.(March 2015). Though researchers found a nonsignficant association between afterschool programs (ASP) and delinquency, authors reference research demonstrating improved academic, social skill and safety outcomes for ASP attendees.  Authors urge providers to ensure ongoing program fidelity to ensure accurate assessment of program benefits.  Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice.

 

Assessing Bullying: A Guide for Out-of-School Time Program Practitioners. (2009). This October 2009 brief from Child Trends provides information on who is most likely to be a bully or victim, how to know when conflict has turned into bullying, and ways to reduce bullying. It includes specific questions to assess students' tendencies to bully others, to be victimized by bullying, and to be pro-social and help others.

Assessing Peer Conflict and Aggressive Behaviors: A Guide for Out-of-School Time Program Practitioners. (2009). This October 2009 brief from Child Trends defines peer conflict, how it differs by age and gender, what factors are associated with youth who engage in aggressive behaviors, and ways to reduce peer conflict. It includes specific questions to assess the prevalence of aggressive behaviors and peer conflict among students.

Education Week's Spotlight on Bullying. (2010). Brings together a collection of articles hand-picked by editors for their insights on: increasing school safety and student mental health, preventing and responding to cyberbullying, federal efforts to keep schools safe and ways to move beyond bully preventions.

Educational-Entertainment as an Intervention With Black Adolescents Exposed to Community Violence. (2012). Witnessing violence is one adverse childhood experience (ACE) associated with living in impoverished Black urban communities. Youth with higher violence avoidance self-efficacy and positive coping are more likely to avoid violence. This study evaluates educational entertainment (edutainment) as an intervention with Black adolescents exposed to community violence.

The Growth of Incarcerations in the United States: Exploring Causes and Consequences. (2014). The growth of incarceration rates in the United States for more than four decades has spawned commentary and a growing body of scientific knowledge about its causes and the consequences for those imprisoned their families, and communities. This report discusses the contributing policies and practices as well as the underlying causes of rising incarceration.

Learning to Play with Anger. Howard Stevenson, an associate professor, clinical psychologist Director of Penn Graduate School of Education, Community, and Clinical Child Psychology Program, has focused much of his research on strategies that help young black males understand their anger and learn safer ways to cope. In 1998, in conjunction with the W.E.B. DuBois Collective Research Institute at Penn, he launched an anger management program for African-American preadolescent and adolescent males. Called the PLAAY Project (Preventing Long-term Anger and Aggression in Youth), the program blends basketball, martial arts training, psycho-educational group sessions, and parental support to bring about positive change in young people's lives.

Moving Toward Healing: Trauma and Violence and Boys and Young Men of Color. (September 2016) The purpose of this brief is to highlight the great burden that trauma, violence, adversity, and the social determinants of health impose on the health of boys and men of color. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

A Philadelphia School's Big Bet on Nonviolence. (2013). In a desperately poor, dangerous part of town, Memphis School Academy decided to ditch its metal detectors and focus on supporting students. The police predicted chaos. But instead, new numbers seems to show that in a single year, the number of serious incidents fell by 90%.

Preventing Bullying and Cyberbullying: Research-Based Policy Recommendations for Executive and Legislative Officials in 2017. January 2017. Child Trends.

Preventing Gang Violence and Building Communities Where Young People Thrive. (2010). This new YEF Institute toolkit draws upon lessons learned over the past three years from the California Cities Gang Prevention Network, a 13-city network sponsored in collaboration with the National Council on Crime and Delinquency to identify strategies for reducing gang violence and victimization.

Prevention of Bullying in Schools, Colleges, and Universities. (2013). Bullying presents one of the greatest health risks to children, youth, and young adults in the U.S. yet many administrators, teachers, and related personnel lack training to address bullying and do now know how to intervene to reduce it. These circumstances drove the American Educational Research Association to undertake this report on the issue.

Safe Start Addresses Exposure to Violence. (2012). As the National Survey for Children Exposed to Violence has shown, children's exposure to home and community violence is prevalent in the United States. Exposure to traumatic events is often unexpected and can leave educators with many uncertainties about what to do next. Faced with students struggling to cope and a community struggling to respond, schools need reliable information, practical tools, and pragmatic guidance. Safe Start Center's Toolkit for Schools is a collection of resources for school administrators, teachers, and afterschool workers to learn more about the prevalence and negative consequences of children's exposure to violence and how they can help. See links and details at the above flyer.

Student Reports of Bullying: Results from the 2015 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. December 2016. National Center for Educational Statistics.

Studies Take Aim at Playground Gossip. (2011). More and More Studies are Focusing on 'Relational Aggression' in Schools. Gossip and social ostracization may come far down on the list of concerns for educators trying to prevent bullying, yet emerging research suggests relational bullying, though often the most frequently overlooked, may hold the key to changing an aggressive culture in schools.

Teasing Tied to Less Physical Activity Among Kids. (2013). Children who are teased while playing sports tend to have a worse quality of life than their non-teased peers. Some of them may also become less active over time. The link between teasing and less physical activity is particularly concerning considering most children are already not exercising as much as they should.

What Works for Bullying Programs. (2013). This publication synthesizes findings from experimental evaluations of 17 bullying programs for youth to determine how frequently these programs work to improve the outcomes of physical and verbal bullying, social and relational bullying, bullying victimization, attitudes toward bullying, and being a bystander of bullying.

White House Report: Bullying and the Power of Peers. (2011). This report was commissioned for the White House Conference on Bullying Prevention, which met on March 10, 2011, and brought together President and First Lady Obama, members of his cabinet, youth, parents, researchers, social officials, and other groups to craft a national strategy for reducing and ending bullying in schools.

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